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Chapter 1.4

Chem 1200 Chapter 1.4 Review Notes.docx

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Felix Lee

1.4: Buffer Solutions  Buffers – solutions capable of resisting pH changes o The acid and base in the buffer solution must not react with each other o The weak species it’s conj. Partner must be both present in significant amounts  Buffers work best with a 1:1 ratio of weak species to it’s conjugate  Three ways to make an acid buffer: o Start with both the weak acid (HA) and its conj. base (A ) - o Start with only HA and use a strong base to convert some to A o Start with only A and use a strong acid to convert some into HA  For buffer calculations it is often preferable to use mole amounts of the parent and conjugate species instead of concentration units o This works because the parent and conj. species are always in the same volume and the value of x is always negligible when compared to the initial concentration of the parent and conjugate species  Equivalence point of a titration is reached when stoichiometric amounts of acid and base are present in the solution (same # moles of acid and base)  Case 1: Strong acid + strong base – pH is 7 (neutral)  Case 2: Weak acid + strong base – pH is > 7 (basic)  Case 3: Strong acid + weak base – pH is < 7 (acidic)  At the equivalence point, the on
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