Classical Studies 2800A/B Chapter Notes -Hyperbola, Hyperbole, Anabolism
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• Ballistae were bigger than catapults but used the same idea
• Ballistics is the science of propulsion, flight and impact of projectiles fired from
guns. This word comes from the Greek word Ballein meaning "to throw", a word
that has many derivatives in our language
• Hyperbole is related to ballein, meaning excess or exaggeration. This word also
gave rise to hyperbola, a type of curve in geometry
• Metabolism is the sum of catabolism and anabolism.
• Parabola - a place alongside, a comparison, "para" means "alongside". The
Christians used this for proverbs, which is where we get the word parable
• Parabole came to mean word and then speech in the Roman empire, which is
where the French parler and Italian parlare comes from. We get our word
"parole" from this.
• From parabole, we also get parlour (a room for conversation), parley
(discussion), parlance (a manner of speech), parliament (council of state).
• Symbol is from symbole, and from the shortened stem -ble, we have emblem and
• Greek verb diabellein means "throw across" came to mean "accuse falsely,
slander", and a noun was formed from this verb, diabalos, "one who slanders, an
evil person". We see this in diabolic, meaning "devilish". Devil also comes from
versions of this word.
• Coined by a doctor from the Greek prefix "an-" and the noun "aisthesis" or
feeling. British derivatives changed this diphthong into its Latin from
"anaesthesia", changing the ai to ae.
Analyst and Catalyst
• From the stem "ly-" from Greek lyein, meaning to loosen or break down.
• An analyst is someone who breaks something down, a catalyst is something that
speeds up a reaction or sets a reaction into motion.
• Formed from the verb "psan" meaning to rub and palin, meaning again.
• Meant the process of cleaning and reusing manuscripts in Greek and Italy when
writing became more popular but materials were expensive
Epenthesis and Metathesis
• Athlete and athletic are often pronounced "ath-a-lete" and "ath-a-letic". The use
of this unnecessary vowel is called an epenthesis and the vowel itself is called
the epenthetic vowel. Words that this also happens to are film "fillum" and
arthritis or "artheritis"
• Metathesis is the transposition of sounds in a spoken word, as, for example,
pasghetti for spaghetti, "westren" for western or "aks" for ask.