Chapter 4 - Volcanoes.docx

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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1022A/B
Stephen R Hicock

Volcanoes 9/20/2012 9:14:00 AM Causes of volcanism  Gas build-up in magma chamber o carbon dioxide, methane  Eruption releases pressure at critical point and process repeats Eruption Figure 1  Running mafic flow o Magnesium and ferrum  More violent felsic flow o Feldspar and silica Materials Extruded Lava flows  Hotter, runny pahoehoe (ropy) - picture 1  Cooler, viscout aa (blocky) - picture 2  Pillow lavas form under water - picture 2 o Repeatedly breaks through quenched tube ends Pyroclastic material  Ranges from fine ash to large bombs Nuee ardentes Figure 2  Very hot cloud of white ash and gas  Wipes out everything Lahars  Wet ash flow  Gets mixed up with snow, ice, during rain fall Volcanic Bomb  mass of molten rock form when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during a
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