Controversies II.docx

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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Noelle Martin

Controversies II Chapter 8: Osteoporosis  What is it? Who gets it? What can people do to reduce their risks? And where do dietary calcium and calcium supplements fit into the picture?  Abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium  Factors: gender, advanced age, poor nutrition (Ca & vitamin D), estrogen deficiency in women, lack of physical activity, being underweight, use of tobacco and alcohol, possibly excess K / Na / caffeine / soft drinks / inadequate vitamin K  Genetic inheritance appears to most strongly influence the maximum bone mass attainable during growth  Growing children who do not get enough calcium do not develop strong bones (drinking milk supplies the most calcium to the diet by far)  Older people take in less Ca and vitamin D than others (aging skin is less efficient at making D)  Men have greater bone density than women (2/3 women)  Weight bearing exercise to build bone strength and improve balance  Heavier body weights and higher body fatness stress bones and promote their maintenance  Excess K can cause body to excrete Ca in the urine, leading to accelerated bone loss and increased risk for kidney stones  Bone strength later in life depends on how well the bones were developed and maintained during youth Chapter 9: Eating Disorders  Increase knowledge and awareness of eating disorders and disordered eating. What can we do? What is already being done?  Factors: heredity / genetics, psychological, sociocultural, environment  Malnutrition is known to affect brain functioning and judgment about ones self  Anorexia nervosa – self starvation, discipline is used to strictly limit portions of low-calorie foods, highest mortality rate of any mental illness  Bulimia nervosa – food is not consumed for its nutritional value, eating is accelerated by hunger from previous caloric restriction  People with binge eating disorder consume less during a binge, rarely purge, and exert less restraint during times of dieting than those with bulimia nervosa  People with these disorders share an over-concern with body weight and the tendency to drastically under eat or overeat  Both disorders can appear in the same person, or one can lead to the other  Unhealthy relationship with food: mindless eating, emotional eating, yo-yo dieting, over / under eating  Female athlete triad: disordered eating, amenorrhea (diminished estrogen, body stops menstruating), osteoporos
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