FOODNUTR 1021 Chapter 12 - 15 Notes

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Department
Foods and Nutrition
Course
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Professor
Jennifer Broxterman
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 12: Food Safety and Food Technology April-06-14 1:45 PM SAFETY: The practical certainty that injury will not result from the use of a substance HAZARD: A state of danger; used to refer to any circumstance in which harm is possible under normal conditions of use 1) Microbial foodborne illness 2) Natural toxins in foods 3) Resides in food a. Environmental contaminants b. Pesticides c. Animal drugs 4) Nutrients in foods 5) Intentional food additives 6) Genetic modification of foods FOODBORNE ILLNESS: Illness transmitted to human beings through food and water; caused by an infectious agent (foodborne infection) or a poisonous substance (food intoxication) — also called food poisoning - Episodes of food poisoning far outnumber any other kind of food contamination Microbes and Food Safety - Foodborne illnesses caused by microbes MICROBES: A shortened name for microorganisms; minute organisms too small to observe without a microscope, including bacteria, viruses, and others - Can be life threatening and are increasingly unresponsive to standard antibiotics How Do Microbes in Food Cause Illness in the Body? - Microorganisms can cause foodborne illness either by infection or by intoxication - Other microorganisms in foods produce enterotoxins or neurotoxins ENTEROTOXINS: Poisons that act upon mucous membranes, such as those of the digestive tract NEUROTOXINS: Poisons that act upon the cells of the nervous system - Once absorbed into the tissues, the poisons cause various kinds of harm ranging from mild stomach pain and headache to paralysis and death - The toxins may arise in food during improper preparation or storage or within the digestive tract after a person eats contaminated food  Most common source of food toxicity is theStaphylococcus aureus bacterium  Most infamous if undoubtedlyClostridium botulinum — found in improperly canned foods BOTULISM: An often-fatal food poisoning caused by botulinum toxin, a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium that grows without oxygen in nonacidic canned foods → Quickly paralyzes muscles, making seeing, speaking, swallowing, and breathing difficult — death can occur as soon as 24 hours later Food Safety from Farm to Table Flow of Food Safety: From Farm to Table - The overwhelming majority of food-poisoning cases result from errors consumers make in handling foods after purchase - Commercially prepared food is usually safe, but rare accidents do occur PASTEURIZATION: The treatment of milk with heat sufficient to kill certain pathogens (disease-causing microbes) commonly transmitted through milk; not a sterilization process (pasteurized milk retains bacteria that cause milk spoilage) Attention on E. coli - Thorough cooking is necessary to make animal-derived foods safe - Cause bloody diarrhea, severe intestinal cramps, and dehydration that set in a few days after eating Industry Controls — Government Inspections and HACCP - All federally registered meat and poultry establishments and storages are being encouraged to implement and maintain a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan to help prevent foodborne illnesses at their source HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP): A systematic plan to identify and correct potential microbial hazards in the manufacturing, distribution, and commercial use of food products 1) Assess hazards (biological, chemical, physical) 2) Identify critical control points (CCP) 3) Set up control procedures & standards for CCPs 4) Monitor CCPs 5) Take corrective action Final Exam Notes Page 1 5) Take corrective action 6) Set up a record keeping system 7) Verify the system is working Food Safety in the Kitchen - Remember these four "keepers": 1. Keep hot food hot 2. Keep cold food cold 3. Keep raw foods separate 4. Keep your hands and the kitchen clean Keep Hot Food Hot - Cooking foods long enough to reach an internal temperature that will kill microbes - After the meal, cooked foods should be refrigerated immediately or within two hours at the maximum Keep Cold Food Cold - Keeping cold food cold starts when you leave the grocery store Keep Raw Foods Separate - Preventing cross-contamination of foods CROSS-CONTAMINATION: The contamination of a food through exposure to utensils, hands, or other surfaces that were previously in contact with a contaminated food Which Foods Are Most Likely to Make People Sick? - Foods that are high in moisture and nutrients and those that are chopped or ground are especially favorable hosts Meats and Poultry - Ground meat or poultry is handled more than meats left whole — experts advise cooking these foods to well-done Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE): An often-fatal illness of cattle affecting the nerves and brain (also called mad cow disease) - Linked with a rare but invariably fatal human brain disorder observed in people who consume products from infected animals - Scientists believe BSE to be caused by an oddly shaped protein known as prion PRION: An infective agent consisting of an unusually folded protein that disrupts normal cell functioning, causing disease - Ingested prions lie dormant in the body for many years before their deadly symptoms arise - Prions are not living things and so cannot be killed or controlled through cooking or disinfecting - Prevention remains the only form of control - The prion responsible for BSE concentrates in the nervous and digestive tissues of infected animals Eggs - Raw, unpasteurized eggs are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella bacteria - Keep eggs refrigerated, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly Raw Produce - Fresh fruit and vegetables can present a microbial threat unless they are thoroughly rinsed in cold running water - Especially troublesome are foods that are consumed raw Seafood - A variety of microbial dangers may lurk in even normal-appearing seafood: viral hepatitis; worms, flukes, and other parasites; viruses that can cause severe intestinal disorders; and naturally occurring toxins Honey - Honey can contain dormant spores of Clostridium botulinum that can awaken (germinate) in the human body to produce the deadly botulinum toxin Picnics, Lunch Bags, and Takeout Foods - Start with chilled ingredients and then chill chopped salads in shallow containers before, during, and after eating - Keep meat, egg, cheese, or seafood sandwiches cold until eaten KEY POINT: - Some foods pose special microbial threats and so require special handing - Raw seafood is especially likely to be contaminated - Honey is unsafe for infants - Almost all types of food poisoning can be prevented by safe food preparation, storage, and cleanliness How Can I Avoid Illness When Travelling? KEY POINT: - Some special food-safety concerns arise when travelling - To avoid foodborne illnesses, remember to boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it Natural Toxins in Foods - Humans rarely suffer actual harm from such poisons, but the potential for harm does exist KEY POINT: - Natural foods contain natural toxins that can be hazardous if consumed in excess - To avoid poisoning by toxins, eat all foods in moderation, treat chemicals from all sources with respect, and choose a variety of foods Final Exam Notes Page 2 - To avoid poisoning by toxins, eat all foods in moderation, treat chemicals from all sources with respect, and choose a variety of foods Residues and Contaminants in Foods Pesticides PESTICIDES: Chemicals used to control insects, diseases, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals — used broadly, the term includes herbicides (to kill weeds), insecticides (to kill insects), and fungicides (to kill fungi) - Pesticides:  Accumulate in the food chain  Kill pests' natural predators  Pollute the water, soil, and air Do Pesticides on Foods Pose a Hazard to Consumers? - Many pesticides are broad-spectrum poisons that damage all living cells, not just those of pests - Pesticide residues on agricultural products can survive processing and may be present in and on foods served to people RESIDUES: Whatever remains — in the case of pesticides, those amounts that remain on or in foods when people buy and use them - Infants and children may be more susceptible than adults to adverse effects from pesticides for several reasons Regulation of Pesticides - The regulation of pesticides focuses on the legal tolerance limit set for each pesticide TOLERANCE LIMIT: The maximum amount of a residue permitted in a food when a pesticide is used according to label directions Possible Alternatives to Pesticides - May kill almost 100 percent of them - Genetic variability of large populations, a few hardy individuals are likely to survive exposure - These resistant insects can then multiply free of competition and soon will produce many offspring — offspring that have inherited resistance to the pesticide and can attack the crop with enhanced vigour - Advances in biotechnology have reduced the need for pesticide sprays on many crops BIOTECHNOLOGY: The science of manipulating biological systems or organisms to modify their products or components to create new products; more properly called genetic engineering or rDNA technology ORGANIC FOODS: Products grown and processed without the use of synthetic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and preservatives and without genetic engineering or irradiation Animal Drugs Growth Hormone in Meat and Milk GROWTH HORMONE: A hormone (somatotropin) that promotes growth and is produced naturally in the pituitary gland of the brain BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN (bST): Growth hormone of cattle, which can be produced for agricultural use by genetic engineering → Used to promote lean tissue growth and milk production Antibiotics in Livestock - Often dose livestock with antibiotic drugs as part of a daily feeding regimen - The drugs ward off infections that commonly afflict animals living in crowded conditions and help promote rapid growth - Ranchers and farmers must adhere to a drug-free waiting period before slaughter during which the drugs break down - When the bacteria in an animal's intestinal tract encounter low daily doses of antibiotics, the bacteria adapt, losing their sensitivity to the drugs over time - Subsequently, such bacteria can infect consumers through food or by direct contact with ill persons - The result is a severe infectious disease that does not yield to standard antibiotic drug therapy, often ending in fatality Arsenic in Food Animals ARSENIC: A poisonous metallic element → In trace amounts, arsenic is believed to be an essential nutrient in some animal species → Arsenic is often added to insecticides and weed killers and, in tiny amounts, the certain animal drugs - Arsenic is a naturally occurring element and an infamous poison Environmental Contaminants CONTAMINANT: Any substance occurring in food by accident; any food constituent that is not normally present Harmfulness of Contaminants - The potential harmfulness of a contaminant depends in part on how persistent it is PERSISTENT: Of a stubborn or enduring nature; with respect to food contaminants, the quality of remaining unaltered and unexcreted in plant foods or in the bodies of animals and human beings BIOACCUMULATION: The accumulation of a contaminant in the tissues of living things at higher and higher concentrations along the food chain - Heavy metal mercury expelled from industrial sites have been detected in Canadian lakes, rivers, and ocean fisheries HEAVY METAL: Any of a number of mineral ions such as mercury and lead; so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight (many heavy metals are poisonous) - The toxicity of a chemical depends upon its dose or concentration Mercury in Seafood METHYLMERCURY: Any toxic compound of mercury to which a characteristic chemical structure, a methyl group, has been added, usually by bacteria in aquatic sediments — methylmercury is easily absorbed from the intestine and causes nerve damage in people - Our health is inextricably linked with the health of our planet Effects of Food Processing on the Nutrients in Foods ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE (UHT): A process of sterilizing food by exposing it for a short time to temperatures above those normally used in processing KEY POINT: - Some nutrients are lost in food processing Final Exam Notes Page 3 - Some nutrients are lost in food processing - Processing aims to protect food from microbial, oxidative, and enzymatic spoilage Extended Shelf Life MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (MAP): A preservation technique in which a perishable food is packaged in a gas-impermeable container from which air has been removed or to which another gas mixture has been added Do Canned Foods Lose Nutrients? CANNING: A method of preserving food by killing all microorganisms present in food and then sealing out air — the food, container, and lid are heated until sterile; as the food cools, the lid makes an airtight seal, preventing contamination - The canning process is based on time and temperature - Food processors employ the high-temperature—short-time (HTST) principle for canning HIGH-TEMPERATURE—SHORT-TIME (HTST) PRINCIPLE): The rule that every 10°C rise in processing temperature brings about an approximately tenfold increase in microbial destruction while only doubling nutrient losses - Three vulnerable water-soluble vitamins: thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin C KEY POINT: - Some water-soluble vitamins are destroyed by canning, but many more diffuse into the canning liquid - Fat-soluble vitamins and minerals are not affected by canning, but minerals also leach into canning liquid Freezing FREEZING: A method of preserving food by lowering the food's temperature to a point that halts life processes — microorganisms do not die but remain dormant until the food is thawed - The nutrient losses are minimal - Frozen foods ay even have a nutrient advantage over fresh → Fresh foods are often harvested unripe → Frozen foods are shipped frozen, so produce is allowed to ripen in the field and to develop nutrients to their fullest potent ial - Frozen foods have to be kept solidly frozen at ‒17°C if they are to be safe and retain their nutrients Drying DRYING: A method of preserving food by removing sufficient water from the food to inhibit microbial growth (because microbes need water to grow) KEY POINT: - Commercially dried foods retain most of their nutrients, but home-dried foods often sustain dramatic losses Extrusion EXTRUSION: A process by which the form of a food is changed, such as changing corn to corn chips; not preservation measure KEY POINT: - Extrusion involves heat and destroys nutrients Food Additives ADDITIVES: Substances that are added to foods but are normally not consumed by themselves as foods - Food additives are included on labels - Additives to give foods desirable characteristic: color, flavor, texture, stability, enhanced nutrient composition, or resistance to spoilage Regulations Governing Additives The GRAS List GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE (GRAS) LIST: A list, established by the U.S. FDA, of food additives long in use and believed to be safe The Margin of Safety TOXICITY: The ability of a substance to harm living organisms — all substances are toxic if the concentration is high enough MARGIN OF SAFETY: In reference to food additives, a zone between the concentration normally used and that which a hazard exists Antimicrobial Agents - Three of these preservatives — salt, sugar, and nitrites — are commonly used Salt and Sugar - Work by withdrawing water from the food; microbes cannot grow without water Nitrites - The nitrites are added to meats and meat products for three main purposes: (1) to preserve their color, (2) to enhance their flavor by inhibiting rancidity, and (3) to protect against bacterial growth KEY POINT: - Microbial food spoilage can be prevented by antimicrobial additives - Of these, sugar and salt have a long history of use - Nitrites added to meats have been associated with cancer in laboratory animals How Do Antioxidants Protect Food? Final Exam Notes Page 4 How Do Antioxidants Protect Food? - Examples of common antioxidant additives:  Vitamin C  Vitamin E (tocopherol)  Sulphites  BHA and BHT Sulphites - Health Canada requires foods to list on their labels any sulphites that are present in quantities greater than 10 ppm BHA and BHT - BHA and BHT prevent rancidity in baked goods and snack foods Artificial Colors - Only about 10 artificial colors are still on the GRAS list KEY POINT: - The addition of artificial colors is tightly controlled Artificial Flavors and MSG - Although only a few artificial colors are currently permitted in foods, close to 2 000 artificial flavors and flavor enhancers are approved, making them the largest single group of food additives - In addition to enhancing other flavors, MSG itself possess a basic taste (termed umami) MSG SYMPTOM COMPLEX: The acute, temporary, and self-limiting reactions experienced by sensitive people upon ingesting a large dose of MSG Incidental Food Additives INCIDENTAL ADDITIVES: Substances that can get into food not through intentional introduction but as a result of contact with the food during growing, processing, packaging, storing, or some other stage before the food is consumed KEY POINT: - Incidental additives are substances that get into food during processing - They are well regulated and most present no hazard Nutrient Additives - Examples of common nutrient additives:  Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, folate, and iron in grain products  Iodine in salt  Vitamins A and D in milk  Vitamin C in fruit drinks  Beta-carotene in cheeses KEY POINT: - Nutrients are added to foods to enrich or to fortify them - These additives do not necessarily make the foods nutritious, only rich in the vitamins and minerals that have been added Final Exam Notes Page 5 Chapter 12: Food Safety and Food Technology April-06-14 3:24 PM Consumer Corner — Irradiation and Food Safety Food Irradiation and Food Safety Food Irradiation - Food irradiation is not used as widely in Canada as it is in the United States - Scientists worldwide support the use od food irradiation - "Food irradiation enhances the safety and quality of the food supply and helps protect consumers from foodborne illness" The Irradiation Process - Irradiation works by exposing foods to controlled doses of gammarays from the radioactive compound cobalt 60 - As radiation passes through living cells, it disrupts their internal structures and kills or deactivates the cells Labelling of Irradiated Foods - "Pre-packaged foods that have been wholly irradiated display the international radiation symbol along with a statement that the product has been irradiated" - "Pre-packaged foods that contain an irradiated ingredient which is more than 10 percent of the finished product must indicate in the list of ingredients that component is irradiated" If Irradiation Is So Great, Why Aren't More Foods Irradiated? - Irradiated foods cost more to produce and package than conventionally processed foods, so the price to consumers is also higher Irradiation Safety RADIOLYTIC PRODUCTS: Chemicals formed in foods during the irradiation process; deemed harmless by experts Final Exam Notes Page 6 Chapter 12: Food Safety and Food Technology April-06-14 5:31 PM Controversy — Organic Foods and Genetically Modified Foods: What Are The Pros and Cons? CERTIFIED ORGANIC FOODS: Foods meeting strict Canadian production regulations, including prohibition of most synthetic pesticides, herbicides, ferti lizers, drugs, and preservatives, as well as genetic engineering and irradiation GE FOODS: Genetically engineered foods GENETIC ENGINEERING (GE): The direct, intentional manipulation of the genetic material of living things in order to obtain some desirable trait not present in the original organism GENETIC MODIFICATION: Intentional changes to the genetic material of living things brought about through a range of methods OUTCROSSING: The unintended breeding of a domestic crop with a related wild species RECOMBINANT DNA (rDNA) TECHNOLOGY: A technique of genetic modification whereby scientists directly manipulate the genes of living things SELECTIVE BREEDING: A technique of genetic modification whereby organisms are chosen for reproduction based on their desirability for human purposes STEM CELL: An undifferentiated cell that can mature into any of a number of specialized cell types TRANSGENIC ORGANISM: An organism resulting from the growth of an embryonic, stem, or germ cell into which a new gene has been inserted Final Exam Notes Page 7 Chapter 13: Life Cycle Nutrition — Mother and Infant April-06-14 5:43 PM Pregnancy: The Impact of Nutrition on the Future Preparing for Pregnancy - Before she becomes pregnant, a woman must establish eating habits that will optimally nourish both the growing fetus and herself FETUS: The stage of human gestation from eight weeks after conception until the birth of an infant - Early in pregnancy the embryo undergoes rapid and significant developmental changes that depend on good nutrition EMBRYO: The stage of human gestation from the third to the eighth week after conception - Fathers-to-be are also wise to examine their eating and drinking habits FERTILITY: The capacity of a woman to produce a normal ovum periodically and of a man to produce normal sperm; the ability to reproduce Prepregnancy Weight - Infant birthweight is the most potent single indicator of an infant's future health LOW BIRTHWEIGHT: A birthweight of less than 2500 grams; used as a predictor or probable health problems in the newborn and as a probable indicator of poor nutrition status of the mother before and/or during pregnancy → Low-birthweight infants are of two different types: 1) Some are premature infants; they are born early and are the right size for their gestational age 2) Other low-birthweight infants have suffered growth failure in the uterus; they are small for gestational age (small for date) and may or may not be premature - To prevent low birthweight, underweight women are advised to gain weight before becoming pregnant and to strive to gain adequately thereafter - Not all cases of low birthweight reflect poor nutrition - An obese woman who wishes to become pregnant is to strive to attain a healthy prepregnancy body weight in order to minimize her medical risks and those of her future child A Healthy Placenta and Other Organs - A major reason the mother's nutrition before pregnancy is so crucial is that it determines whether her uterus will be able to support the growth of a healthy placenta during the first month of gestation UTERUS: The womb, the muscular organ within which the infant develops before birth PLACENTA: The organ of pregnancy in which maternal and fetal blood circulate in close proximity and exchange nutrients and oxygen (flowing into the fetus) and wastes (picked up by the mother's blood) GESTATION: The period of about 40 weeks (three trimesters) from conception to birth; the term of a pregnancy - Maternal and fetal blood vessels intertwine and exchange materials — the two bloods never mix, but the barrier between them is notably thin - The umbilical cord is the pipeline from the placenta to the fetus - The amniotic sac surrounds and cradles the fetus, cushioning it with fluids AMNIOTIC SAC: The "bag of waters" in the uterus in which the fetus floats - The placenta also produces a broad range of hormones that act in many ways to maintain pregnancy and prepare the mother's breasts for lactation LACTATION: Production and secretion of breast milk for the purpose of nourishing an infant - A woman's poor nutrition during her early pregnancy could affect her grandchild as well as her child The Events of Pregnancy - The newly fertilized ovum, called a zygote, begins as a single cell and divides into many cells during the days after fertilization OVUM: The egg, produced by the mother, that unites with a sperm from the father to produce a new individual ZYGOTE: The term that describes the product of the union of ovum and sperm during the first two weeks after fertilization IMPLANTATION: The stage of development, during the first two weeks after conception, in which the fertilized egg (fertilized ovum or zygote) embeds itself in the wall of the uterus and begins to develop The Embryo and Fetus Stages of Embryonic and Fetal Development TRIMESTER: A period representing gestation; about 13 to 14 weeks A Note about Critical Periods CRITICAL PERIOD: A finite period during development in which certain events may occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages — a critical period is usually a period of cell division in a body organ - Whatever nutrients and other environmental conditions are necessary during this period must be supplied on time if the organ is to reach its full potential - The effects of malnutrition during critical periods are irreversible Increased Need for Nutrients Energy, Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat - In the first trimester, the pregnant woman needs no additional energy, but her energy needs rise as pregnancy progresses - She requires an additional 340 daily calories during the second trimester and an extra 450 calories each day during the third trimester - Well-nourished pregnant women meet these demands for more energy in several ways: some eat more food, some reduce their activity, and some store less of Final Exam Notes Page 8 - Well-nourished pregnant women meet these demands for more energy in several ways: some eat more food, some reduce their activity, and some store less of their food energy as fat - Ample carbohydrate is necessary to fuel the fetal brain and spare the protein needed for fetal growth - Protein recommendation for pregnancy is higher than for nonpregnant women by 25 grams per day - Protein supplements during pregnancy can be harmful, and their use is discouraged - Essential fatty acids, however, are particularly important to the growth and development of the fetus Of Special Interest: Folate and Vitamin B 12 - The vitamins famous for their roles in cell reproduction — folate and vitamin B12— are needed in large amounts during pregnancy - Folate plays an important role in preventing neural tube defects NEURAL TUBE: The embryonic tissue that later forms the brain and spinal cord - A neural tube defect (NTD) occurs when the tube fails to close properly NEURAL TUBE DEFECT (NTD): A group of nervous system abnormalities caused by interruption of the normal early development of the neural tube ANENCEPHALY: An uncommon and always fatal neural tube defect in which the brain fails to form SPINA BIFIDA: One of the most common types of neural tube defects in which gaps occur in the bones of the spine— often the spinal cord bulges and protrudes through the gaps, resulting in a number of motor and other impairments - Those who exclude all animal products from the diet need vitamin B -12rtified foods or supplements Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc - In the final weeks of pregnancy, more than 300 milligrams of calcium a day are transferred to the fetus - Efforts to ensure an adequate calcium intake during pregnancy are aimed at conserving the mother's bone mass while supplying fetal needs - The DRI recommendation for calcium intake is the same for nonpregnant and pregnant women in the same age group - The mineral magnesium is also essential for bone and tissue growth, and pregnancy slightly increases the need for magnesium in the diet - During pregnancy, the body avidly conserves iron → Stores dwindle because the developing fetus draws heavily on its mother's iron to store up a supply → Maternal blood losses are also inevitable at birth, especially during a cesarean section, further draining the mother's iron supply CESAREAN SECTION: Surgical childbirth, in which the infant is taken through an incision in the woman's abdomen - Zinc, required for protein synthesis and cell development, is vital during pregnancy Fish - Choose the types of fish generally known to have low levels of contamination KEY POINT: - All pregnant women, but especially those who are less than 25 years of age, need to pay special attention to ensure adequate calcium intakes - A daily iron supplement is recommended for all pregnant women during the second and third trimesters Prenatal Supplements - Physicians often recommend daily multivitamin-mineral supplements - Prenatal supplements typically provide more folate, iron, and calcium than regular supplements PRENATAL: Before birth KEY POINT: - Women most likely to benefit from multivitamin-mineral supplements during pregnancy include those who do not eat adequately, those carrying twins or triples, and those who smoke cigarettes or are alcohol or drug abusers Canadian Prenatal Programs CANADA PRENATAL NUTRITION PROGRAM (CPNP): The women targeted by this program include pregnant adolescents, youth at risk of becoming pregnant, pregnant women who abuse alcohol or other substances, pregnant women living in violent situations, off-reserve Aboriginal and Inuit women, refugees, and pregnant women living in isolation or not having access to services - Provides food supplementation, nutrition counselling, support, education, referral, and counselling on lifestyle issues for women who are most likely to have unhealthy babies How Much Weight Should a Woman Gain during Pregnancy? - For the normal-weight woman, the ideal pattern is about 1.5 kilograms total during the first trimester and 0.5 kilogram per week thereafter - Dieting during pregnancy is not recommended - The weight the pregnant woman puts on is nearly all lean tissue - The fat she gains is needed for lactation Should Pregnant Women Be Physically Active? KEY POINT: - Physically fit women can continue to be physically active throughout pregnancy - Pregnant women should be cautious in their choice of activities Teen Pregnancy KEY POINT: - Of all the population groups, pregnant teenage girls have the highest nutrient needs and an increased likelihood of having problem pregnancies Why Do Some Women Crave Pickles and Ice Cream While Others Can't Keep Anything Down? KEY POINT: - Food cravings usually do not reflect physiological needs, and some may interfere with nutrition - Nausea arises from normal hormonal changes of pregnancy Final Exam Notes Page 9 Some Cautions for the Pregnant Woman Cigarette Smoking - Her infant is more likely to be of low birthweight — the more a mother smokes, the smaller her baby will be - Of all preventable causes of low birthweight in Canada, smoking has the greatest impact - Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the unexplained deaths that sometimes occur in otherwise healthy infants, has been linked to the mother's cigarette smoking during pregnancy ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS): The combination of exhaled smoke (mainstream smoke) and smoke from lighted cigarettes, pipes, or cigars (sidestream smoke) that enters the air and may be inhaled by other people Medicinal Drugs and Herbal Supplements - Seek the advice of a heath professional Drugs of Abuse Environmental Contaminants - Infants and young children whose mothers were exposed to environmental contaminants such as lead and mercury during pregnancy show signs of impaired cognitive development Foodborne Illness LISTERIOSIS: A serious foodborne infection that can cause severe brain infection or death in a fetus or a newborn; caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, which is found in soil and water - Pregnant women are "about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listerosis" Vitamin-Mineral Megadoses Dieting Sugar Substitutes Caffeine - Caffeine crosses the placenta, and the fetus has only a limited ability to metabolize it Drinking during Pregnancy Alcohol's Effects - Alcohol crosses the placenta freely and is directly toxic  Halts the delivery of oxygen through the umbilical cord  Slows cell division  Exerts a major detrimental effect on the fetal brain  Interferes with placental transport of nutrients to the fetus  Before fertilization, alcohol can damage the ovum or sperm Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - Drinking alcohol while pregnant can produce a low Apgar score APGAR SCORE: A system of scoring an infant's physical condition right after birth → Heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli, and color are ranked 0, 1, or 2 — a low score indicates that medical attention is required to facilitate survival FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS): The cluster of symptoms including brain damage, growth retardation, mental retardation, and facial abnormalities seen in aninfant or child whose mother consumer alcohol during her pregnancy ALCOHOL-RELATED NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER (ARND): Behavioral, cognitive, or central nervous system abnormal
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