Foods and Nutrition 1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Crich, Taste, Gallic Acid

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Food Safety and Technology: Chapter 12
Food Safety Guidelines in Canada
Canadian Agencies
Federal agencies regulate the safety of our food supply
oHealth Canada
oCanadian Food Inspection Agency
oAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
oEnvironmental Bureau, AFFC
oEnvironment Canada
Food-borne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (2006)- for national
emergency preparedness precipitated by the events of the 9/11 & SARS; to
counter food bioterrorism
What is HACCP?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
oA system that helps evaluate & control the entire food-handling
process while focusing on the hazards which may endanger the safety
& quality of foods served
Healthy Inspections by the Public Health Unit
oOften looking that HACCP steps have been followed
HACCP certified
oAll in food chain follow the seven steps of HACCP and have proof of
following these, steps (e.g. written records of temperatures etc.)
HACCP
Seven steps in the HACCP system:
oAssess the hazards (identify potentially hazardous foods)
oIdentify the critical control points (CCP; design flow of food)
oSet up control procedures & standards for CCPs
oMonitor CCPs
oTake preventative action
oSet up a recording keeping system
oVerify the system is working
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Food Borne Illness
Safety- the practical certainty that injury will not result from the use of a
substance
Hazard- a state of danger, used to refer to any circumstance in which harm is
possible under normal conditions
Food-Borne Infection- results when bacteria in food become numerous in
food consumed; may continue to grow in intestines and infect tissues of the
body (e.g. Salmonella, E. Coli)
Food Intoxication- results when toxins (entertoxins, neurotoxins) produced
by bacteria are ingested; toxins may not alter appearance, odor, or flavor of
food (e.g. Staphlococcus, aureus, Clostridium botulinum)
Food Supply Hazards
Food-borne Disease
oAlmost always preventable;
oMost cases are due to improper handling of food from production
(farmers, processors, transporters, retailers) to ingestion (customers
in a foodservice facility, at home, or in a non-commercial setting)
“Farmers, food producers, markets, and food preparers have a legal
obligation to keep food safe, but we also need to keep foods safe in the home”
Food supply/diet-related hazards (in descending order of danger):
Microbial contamination
Naturally occurring toxicants
Environmental contaminants (residues, pesticides, animal drugs)
Nutrients in foods
Intentional food additives
Genetic modification of foods
Source & Symptoms of Food-Borne Illness~ check table 12.3 pg. 446-447
Staphylococcus aureus (Intoxication)
Found on skin, nose, throat of most people; and those with colds, sinus
infections, infected wounds, pimples, boils & acne
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Bacteria killed at 120 F; toxin is heat resistant, not detectable by taste or
smell
Toxin produced in meat, poultry, egg products, salads (tuna, potato,
macaroni), cream-filled pastries
Onset- ½ to 8 hour contamination
Symptoms- abdominal cramps, NV, severe diarrhea, exhaustion; last 24-48
hours; rarely fatal
Prevention- keep foods hot above 140 F, foods cold below 40 F; use sanitary
food handling methods
MRSA- methicillin-resistant S. aureus
Clostridium Botulinum (Botulism)
Toxin produced under anaerobic environment of low acidity
Canned corn, peppers, green beans, canned MFP, bottled garlic; bottled, herb-
flavored oils, baked potatoes in foil held at warm temperature >2 hour
Honey (not to be given to infants less than one year of age; spores present)
Onset- 12 to 72 hours
Symptoms- blurred or double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty,
progressive paralysis (respiratory system); often fatal
Prevention- use proper canning methods for low-acid foods; avoid foods with
leaky seals, bent, bulging cans
Escherichia Coli (Hemorrhagic colitis)
Coliform strain 0157:H7- deadly
Most associated with undercooked ground beef, raw milk, unpasteurized
apple juice & cider, salami, venison, jerky, sprouts, sauces with mayonnaise,
untreated water, rural wells; dairy cows & other cattle carry the bacteria
Non-bloody diarrhea (1-5 days after contamination) to bloody diarrhea,
hemorrhagic colitis, severe abdominal pain, moderate dehydration
Hemolytic uremic syndrome in children- acute renal failure & death
Thrombocytopenic purpura- cerebral NS deterioration, seizures & strokes
Prevention- cook ground beef, veal, lamb, pork to internal temperature of
160 F; to 165 F for ground poultry; to 180 F for whole poultry
How To Prevent Food Borne Illness
Myths
“If it tastes okay, it’s safe to eat”
oSensory characteristics (taste, smell, looks) do not determine safety of
a food
“We’ve always handled our food this way and nothing has ever happened.”
oFood-borne illness symptoms- NV cramps & diarrhea blamed on
‘stomach flu’
oE. Coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter- four most
serious food-borne pathogens
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