Foods and Nutrition 1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Triceps Brachii Muscle, Liposuction, Glycogen

14 views9 pages
Chapter 9. Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
Body Weight Misconceptions
DON’T…Focus on weight
Instead focus on healthy weight for YOU, not compared to others
DON’T…Focus on controlling weight
Instead, focus on controlling the TYPE of weight, (fat in proportion to lean body mass), not the AMOUNT of
weight
DON’T…Focus on short term
Instead, focus on LIFESTYLE choices, BEHAVIOUR over time, not short sporadic bursts of activity or diet
Risks from Underweight
Thin/underweight individuals
Die first during a siege or famine
Disadvantaged during times of surgery or illnesses that limit their intakes (fasting for tests, low appetite) or
increase their outputs (vomiting/diarrhea)
Those fighting a wasting disease, e.g., CA, may die from starvation
People need body fat stores for energy reserves, protection for the bones & organs, nutrient stores, body temperature
controls
Risks from Overweight/Obesity
Mild to moderate overweight
Increased risks for diseases
Risk of premature death
Obese
Now declared a chronic disease
Major risk for CVD (HBP, HD)
Other risks
High blood lipids, sleep apnea, gout, arthritis
Abdominal hernias, liver malfunction, flat feet
Varicose veins, gallbladder disease
Respiratory problems, kidney stones
Complications in pregnancy, surgery
High accident rate, some CAs
Social & Economic Costs of Obesity
Society places enormous value on thinness for women
Social & economic handicaps:
Women who are “fat” – less sought after for romance, less often hired, less often admitted to college, pay
higher insurance premiums, pay more for clothing
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
“Fat” people – made to feel rejected; diminished self-esteem; stereotypes as lazy, stupid, self-indulgent; treated
with hostility & contempt
VIDEO: Weight Bias in Health Care
Weight biased is expressed in medical care
Prevalence of weight discrimination is as common as racial discrimination
One in five children are overweight
Obesity has doubled and tripled in teens
Physicians were second in weight discrimination
Individuals who are weight discriminated have a higher chance of being suicidal and have an eating disorder
VIDEO: Abdominal Fat
Visceral fat: fat around the organs
Who is most prone to abdominal fat?
Eating a diet in total fat especially saturated
Men and postmenopausal women are most susceptible
WHY?
Different levels of hormones
What are the risks of extra abdominal fat?
Insulin resistant, high blood pressure, cancer, heart disease stroke, heart attack, inflammation around the organs, diabetes
What is an “apple” shape and what is a “pear” shape?
Apple stores more fat in abdomen and pear store more fat around their hips
Central Obesity
Body Weight Classification in Adults
Weight-for-height tables – easy to use, inexpensive, not accurate
BMI – weight for height in people >20 y.; correlates with body fatness & degree of disease risk
Waist circumference – visceral fatness in proportion to total body fatness; indicator of health risk (type 2 DM, CHD,
HBP); men >102 cm (40 in); women >88 cm (35 in)
Person’s disease risk profile – risk factors such as HBP, type 2 DM, elevated blood cholesterol, smoking, alcoholic
drinking
Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat
Body Weight versus Body Fatness
Body Mass Index (BMI):
BMI = (weight in kg) / (height in m2)
BMI = ((weight in lb) / (height in in2)) x 705
Know chart***
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Body Mass Index 18-65
BMI values
Most valuable for evaluating degrees of obesity
Less useful for evaluating non-obese people’s body fatness
Two major drawbacks
1) Failure to indicate how much of weight is fat
2) Failure to indicate where the fat is located
BMI is not suited for:
Athletes – highly developed muscles increase values
Pregnant and lactating women – increased weight normal in childbearing
Adult over the age of 65y – people ‘grow shorter’ w/ age
Evaluating Body Fatness
Anthropometry: Direct body measurements
Skinfold or fatfold test (calipers) – accurate estimate of total body fat & fair assessment of location (triceps,
subscapular)
Waist circumference (tape measure) – visceral fatness; cut-off points: men 102 cm (40 in); women 88 cm (35
in)
Consistency is a concern with these techniques
Density: Lean tissue is denser than fat
Underwater weighing – measures BW compared with volume displaced; lean tissue denser than fat tissue
Air displacement plethysmography – Bod Pod measures air displacement by the body; estimates & tracks body
composition over time
Expensive!
Conductivity
Bioelectrical impedance analysis– lean tissue & water conduct electrical current; fat does not
Need adequate water in body for accurate results
Average Body Composition
Men:
45% muscle, 25% organs, 15% fat, 15% bone
Women:
36% muscle, 24% organs, 27% fat, 13% bone
Substantially greater fat tissue is normal & necessary for reproduction
The Mystery of Obesity
Why are people fat? Thin? Of same weight?
Is weight controlled by heredity, metabolic factors, environment, eating behaviors?
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class