Foods and Nutrition 1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Allergen, Main Source, Infant Formula

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Chapter 13: Life Cycle Nutrition; Mother and Infant Part 2
Post-Natal Nutrition (Lactation)
Breastfeeding and Weight Loss for Mom
Mom’s who breastfeeding 3 months or longer seem to have accelerated
weight loss
Gradual loss of 1lb/week is safe and does not reduce milk output
Breastfeeding burns some energy, but diet & PA are still cornerstones for
weight control
Energy Needs for Lactation
Baby takes about 750 mL breast milk/day
Mom needs 500 calories to produce it in addition to meeting her own caloric
needs
oEat extra 300 kcal/d; 170 kcal drawn from fat stores
Fluids Needs for Lactation
Mom needs about 13c fluids/d to prevent dehydration
This can be via milk, juice or water after breastfeeding & at meals
Nutritional Deprivation of Lactation Moms
Reduces quantity of milk, of breastmilk
Women produce milk with adequate PRO, CHO, fat and folate even when
their supplies are limited
Milk quality maintained at expense of maternal stores
Sleep, hydration and nutrition affects the quantity of milk
Baby eats what Mom Eats
Baby benefits when mom’s diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
adequate dairy, lean meats, and healthy fats
oHealthy fats are important for brain development
Infants tend to be sensitive to cow’s milk lactose/protein, garlic, onions,
beans, peppers, and other common “gassy foods”
oMay cause gas or reflux or general discomfort
oMedicines for reflux cause neurological damage
What to Avoid When Breastfeeding
Alcohol: enters breastmilk; affects production, volume, composition, &
ejection reflex; alcohol concentration peaks within 1 hour
oOverwhelms infant’s alcohol-degrading system; can become addicts
by way of breastfeeding
Cigarette smoking- produce less milk, or lower fat content; infants gain less
weight; transfers nicotine & other chemicals via breastmilk
oInfant exposed to second-hand smoke= poor growth, hearing
impairment, vomiting, breathing difficulties, SIDS
oSmoking affects quality and quantity of milk
Caffeine- excess makes baby jittery, fretful, wakeful
Medications- some can be secreted in breast milk or suppress lactation
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Oral contraceptives- combined estrogen-progestin may suppress milk
output, shorten duration of breastfeeding
oProgestin only (birth control)- has no effect on breast milk or breast
feeding
Maternal illness- with common cold, ok to breastfeed; with TB or hepatitis
(but with appropriate treatment), can breastfeed
oHIV/AIDS- transferable in pregnancy, at birth, or through breast milk;
NO breastfeeding, if mother tests positive & safe alternatives available
(formula supply & clean, safe, water)
oDon't take anything that would dry up a cold (antihistamine, advil
cold and flu) because if it drys up sinuses the breast milk could dry up
and may not produce breast milk again
oBreastfeeding while sick can give the baby immunity with being sick
Feeding the Infant
Birth weight- doubles at 5 months; triples at 1 year
BMR- remarkably high; 2x of an adult, based on body weight
Early nutrition- affects growth & later development
Schedule- feed baby every 3 hours, it gives the baby insecurity and fear
On-demand – feed baby when they are hungry
Early Feeding- establishes eating habits for lifetime influence
Taste buds- sweet/salty
Instant gratification
Forced to finish
Under-nourished
Meals vs. snacks
Is meal time stressful/rushed/enjoyable
Nutrient Needs in the First Year
Most rapid growth period in life
Growth affects nutrition status and needs
Special needs for energy nutrients, vitamin A, D, Ca
100 cal/kg BW/d; as % of BW
oBabies need more than 2x as much of nutrients (most adults require
<40)
Vitamin K- single does at birth to prevent uncontrolled bleeding
oVitamin k producing bacteria takes weeks to establish
Water- breast milk or infant formula provides enough water to replace losses
in healthy infant
oWater is not necessary in the first year of life, if they are being
properly fed
Vitamin D- supplement sometimes needed
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