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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary and Definitions for Human Geography Text

Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

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-Geography is about earth space and its physical and cultural context
-Throughout geography͛s long history it has remained consistently focused on human-environmental interactions,
the interrelatedness of places, and the likenesses and differences in physical and cultural content of area that exist
from place to place
-The collective interests of geographers are summarized by the spatial and systems analytical questions they ask
-The responses to those questions are interpreted through basic concepts of space and place, location, distance,
direction, content evolution, spatial interaction, and regional organization
-in their study of the earth͛s surface as the occupied and altered space in which humans operate geographers may
concentrate on the integration of physical and cultural phenomena in a specific earth area (regional geography)
-They may instead emphasize systematic geography through the study of the earth͛s physical systems of spatial
and human concern or as here devote primary attention to people
-Human geography͛s focus is on human interactions both with the physical environments people occupy and alter
and with the cultural environments they have created
-It is also concerned with the ways people perceive the landscapes and regions they occupy, act within and
between them, make choices about them, and organizing them according to the varying cultural, political, and
economic interests of human societies
-Earth is the physical background to all humans and we must know how our home has been altered by our
societies and cultures
½ direction with respect to cardinal east, west, north, and south reference points
½ the shortest-path separation between two places measured on a standard unit of lengths, also
called real distance
½ the exact position of an object or place stated in spatial coordinates of a grid system designed
for locational purposes, absolute global locations are cited in degrees, minutes, and seconds
½ the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from other locations, the relative
opportunity for spatial interaction, can be measured in geometric, social, or economic terms
an approach to human geography that emphasizes the psychological aspects of decision making
that influence individual spatial behaviour and decision making
c in spatial distributions the clustering of a phenomena around a central location
c the directness of routes linking pairs of places, an indication of the degree of internal connection in
a transport network, more generally all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication
between places
c highly industrialized areas that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have
high levels of productivity within diversified economies, examples are North America, Western Europe, and Japan
 have underdeveloped or very specialized economies characterized by old technologies and
low levels of productivity
c the natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture
group or society, the built environment
 the quantity of anything per unit area
 in spatial distributions a statement of the amount of spread of a phenomenon over area or around a
central location, represents a continuum from clustered, concentrated, or agglomerated (at one end) to dispersed
or scattered (at the other)
 a belief that human activities are dictated by the natural environment
 a region distinguished by a uniformity of one or more characteristics that can serve as the basis for
areal generalization and contrast with adjacent areas
 a region differentiated by what occurs within it rather than by a homogeneity of physical or
cultural phenomena, an earth area recognized as an operational unit based upon defined organizational criteria,
the concept of unity is based on interaction and interdependence between different points within the area
 the socially constructed and learned characteristics and practices attributable to femininity and
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