Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
GEOG (300)
Chapter 2

Geography 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Central Canada, Dependency Ratio, Ecumene

Course Code
GEOG 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

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Pages 121-162
Vignette 3.6 – Equalization
Government of Canada’s transfer program for addressing fiscal disparities among provinces
Became a federal commitment in 1957, entrenched in the Constitution 1982
Ensure sufficient revenues to provide reasonably comparable levels of public services at
reasonably comparable levels of taxation
Equalization payments are unconditional, receiving provinces are free to spend the funds
according to their own priorities
Vignette 3.7 – Indian Residential Schools
1892 formal arrangement with Christian churches to provide boarding school for Aboriginal
an attempt to assimilate Aboriginals into Canadian society by removing them from their families
and preventing them from using their native language
Resulted in a destroyed culture with lack of roots in either society
150 000 Indians attended these schools
Federal government believed the children could be successful in modern society if their
abandoned their culture and language and adopted Christianity, learned English or French and
had a basic education
Attendance was mandatory and was enforced by Indian agents and federal officers
Last school closed in 1996
Canada’s declining natural increase rate justifies high levels of immigration
Demography of skilled labour shortages plays a large role in the fast growing areas of Western
Accommodation of newcomers remains a challenge for Canadian society
Canada’s Population
Population should reach 40 million by 2020
Canada’s population is aging, affecting the age dependency ratio
Demographic population of the aboriginal population is opposite
oAboriginal people are unable to join the labour force because of a mismatch in skills and
Principal issue the widening income gap
A New Look
A new ethnic and cultural composition
Growing number of Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus and visible minorities
Chinese is the third most popular language in Canada
Aboriginal population is increasing and French population decreasing
Population Size
Medium sized country that has increased 10x since confederation
Population increase due to; natural increase, territorial expansion and immigration (300 000
Population Density
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One of lowest population densities in the world; relatively few people inhabit the north in which
there are limits to agriculture
Population density: number of people / land area
Population Distribution
Population distribution: the dispersal of people within a geographic area
Unevenly distributed across Canada
Ecumene: Canada’s inhabited area
Core population lies within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Lowlands; population 19.5M
oEconomy based on manufacturing and agriculture
Secondary zone: Appalachian Uplands, the Canadian Shield, Interior Plains, Cordillera
Sparsely populated zone: band of Boreal forest that stretches across Canada
Zone Population (M) % of Canada’s
Major City Population of
Major City
Core: densely
19.5 59 Toronto 5.8M
13.2 40 Vancouver 2.4
1 1 Fort McMurray 61K
Empty zone:
<0.1 <1 Labrador City 9K
Native settlements are the least productive area in the country
omost activities are the exploitation of non-renewable resources
oeven when there is a mine near a First Nations population; few of them have a high-
school degree
Urban Population
vast majority of people live in cities, towns and villages (82%)
sources of population: arrival of immigrants, stream of Canadians moving from rural to urban
places and natural increase
Census Metropolitan Areas
Census metropolitan area: an urban area together with adjacent urban and rural areas that have
a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core.
In 1931 there were 10 CMAS; Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec, Saint John, Toronto,
Vancouver, Winnipeg and Windsor. By 2011, Canada had 33 CMAS with 23.1M. 15.9M reside in
6 metropolitan areas each with a population of 1M+; Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary,
Ottawa-Gatineau and Edmonton
The attraction of cities; business/employment, technological innovation, capital accumulation,
university communities
Urban sprawl affects CMA’s; forces cities to spend on infrastructure, downtown cores have lost
their focus of commercial and social activities.
oAn attempt to mitigate urban sprawl by expanding capabilities to allow for walking/cycling
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