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Chapter 4

Geography 2153A chapter 4 lecture notes.docx

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Western University
Geography 2153A/B
Jamie Baxter

Geography 2153A Chapter 4-Lecture Notes Human Population, Environment, and Development • Population growth and environmental pressures: Paul Erlich: • Impact = Population + Affluence + Technology an increase in the total number of people or an increase in individual impact on the environment results in increased total human impact advances in technology have increased individual and total human impact (and potential for impact) Human Demography and Population Dynamics Demography • the scientific study of the characteristics and changes in the size and structure of human populations Historical growth stages of human population • Hunter/gatherer • Pre-industrial agriculture • Industrial revolution • Modern era (unprecedented population growth) • we haven’t been industrialized for that long, only 100+ years Basic population dynamic calculations • Crude growth rate (N) or natural increase = crude birth rate – crude death rate e.g. Can 2010 = 11.3 - 7.3 = 4.0 Can 2008 = 11.1 - 7.2 = 3.9 • (Annual or other time period) growth rate = (∆ N / N ) x 100 e.g., 2008-2010 = (0.1/4.0) x 100 = 2.5% • Infant Mortality Rate = deaths of infants < 1 yr of age / 1000 live births Crude because it ignores the age and sex composition of the population - the growth rate is low - It doesn’t show net migration - It leaves a lot of factors out like age and sex - It is marginally useful - Infant mortality for the first year is important because it influences the survival rate, how many actually live - It is a measure of development - Know how to calculate the growth rate! 4.0 -3.9=0.1 - Compare the growth rate to the population pyramid World Population Development - 2 types of countries, developing countries and industrialized countries - it is a steep curve, that has increased over time - in a period of extreme growth Thomas Malthus • Exponential growth: growth takes place at a constant rate per time 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128…. vs. • Arithmetic growth: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 Had not accounted for the power of fossil fuels to create efficiencies in food production and distribution among other things - Should know about Malthus - His theories - growth in the food supply - Not as many are dying from food supply as he predicted - Due to bioengineering and technology - Lead to more productivity - Changed farming techniques to mass production - Drought and pesticide resistance Karl Marx - philosopher, found the political economy field of study during the mid 19 th century - need massive pool of cheap labour to maximize profit - relative surplus population - argued that accumulation and production processes associated with capitalism created a surplus of labour over jobs - which led to increase unemployment, cheap labour and poverty - happening on a global scale since his time Demographic Transition - key to understanding how human populations stabilize 1) Preindustrial stage 1 - high birth and death rate 2) Early industrial stage 2 - increasing total population, stable birth rate and decreasing death rate 3) Industrial stage 3 - declining birth rate and even lower death rate -population fluctuates depending on economic conditions, slowing population growth -reasons: birth control, decline in infant mortality, improve education and jobs for women, high cost to raise children -shows cultural shift in social norms and values 4)Postindustrial stage 4 -low equal birth and death rates -deindustrialization- manufacturing industries to service and info based industries -zero population growth, help contribute to sustainable forms of economic development - rise in living standards and economic expectations Age Structure - analysis of age structure of a population shows info of current and future social and economic status, patters of resource use and population’s impact on the environment - Population pyramid - number of male and females at each age from birth to death - Right side is females, left side is male - Bottom third represents prereproductive humans (birth to 14 years old) - Middle represents people in reproductive years (15-44) - Top represents postreproductive people (45+) - Width is proportionate to population size Population age structure - predict how population changes over time - reveals if its expanding, stable or declining - expanding population is pyramid shaped - stable population is curved pyramid - declining population is pear shaped Expanding populations generally the only ones with the triangular shape – so not always called “pyramids” anymore. Age and gender structure important for reproduction – wide base represents many future births -overtime, the declining population will be more stable when the middle range will start families - Important to know the middle range will move through, the base will be recreated by the next generation - A lot of the developed world is moving to the declining population - The developing world is expanding population - We have selective immigration Age structure diagrams for less developed and highly developed countries: These pyramids do no account for migration – a major component of Canada’s population growth - Actual vs. predicted - will mainly change in the older range - Pension is being reorganized - A lot of us will be working with seniors - Seniors will be spending a lot of wealth - Male and female comparision is not as important, the ratio is pretty stable Demographic of Aboriginal Peoples Yet they are disproportionately impacted by environmental harms - 1.2 million of aboriginals in 35 million of canadians - Relatively small proportion - The quality of this data, ,they are gross esti
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