Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Geography (263)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
Geography 2153A/B
Professor
Jamie Baxter

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CHAPTER 13: SUSTAINABILITY AND THE CITY -Group Exercise (design a sustainable city): half of the rooftops will have solar – other half will have rooftop greenhouses/gardens to emit oxygen absorb carbon dioxide – wind farms outside of the city which these farms will be half wind and half agricultural so these farms can feed the city with less food miles, and also produce renewable energy for the city as well; build wetlands outside the city as well for water filtering purposes and aquifer opportunities – for residents, there will be subsidies for greener alternative transportation -increase in urban populations (over half of the world’s population lives in an urban area) – 61% of the Canadian population lives in an urban area -Rural population (outside centres of 1,000 people or more) trends in Canada: has been increasing slowly at a stable rate -Urban Population trends in Canada: Once Canadian population hit 5,000,000 – urban areas have been exponentially increasing -Edmonton, Quebec City, Calgary, Kitchener/Waterloo/Guelph, Halifax, Toronto, and Ottawa are among the top cities in Canada which are growing fast in terms of urban growth URBAN AREA: population of at least 1000 and a density of 400 or more people per square kilometer -urban areas take up 2% of Earth’s surface, but account for 75% of resource use URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND TRENDS -changes in the physical landscape that accompany urbanization typically alters the hydrologic cycle and reduces the absorptive capacity of the Earth’s surface by increasing the number and size of impermeable surface, channeling natural streams, and converting bogs and wetlands to building sites and roadways -vehicles emit air pollutants that also may enter waterways via runoff and contaminate streams, rivers, and oceans -social issues may occur as communities become disrupted or destroyed through urban development, safety and crime issues may arise, and health concerns such as respiratory problems and inadequate exercise may increase Loss of Agricultural land: enormous pressures on lands for food production -20% (25% in textbook) of Canada’s high-capability (Class1-3) agricultural land is located within 80 km of the 23 largest cities -urbanization affects speciality crop areas -agricultural regions experience significant economic and social impacts – Urban Shadow Effect: impacts extend over large areas and cause declines in agriculture in urban regions -removal of woodland areas, disruption of wildlife, habitat loss, and accelerated soil erosion, loss of wetlands -aquatic habitats threatened by the potential for groundwater and surface water to be polluted by storm water runoff -constrained by the ocean at its borders, there is a pressure for Vancouver to develop prime agricultural land towards the mountains Microclimate: five main factors shape a city’s microclimate: (1) storage and reradiation of heat by buildings and streets; (2) reduction of wind speed which reduces the wind’s cooling effect in summers; (3) human-made sources of heat; (4) rapid runoff of precipitation, which reduces the cooling effect of evaporation; (5) effects of atmospheric pollutants -most of the above effects result from the loss of vegetation and construction of landscapes made of nonpermeable materials -HEAT ISLAND: the net result of the five factors listed above – temperatures are 1 to 2 degrees celcius higher in the city than in the surrounding rural areas – two implications of the heat island effect is that cities need less energy for heating but more energy for cooling, and that in using cooling devises that contain CFC’s generate emissions that affects the ozone layer Noise: -noise-induced heating loss is the most common occupational health hazard in the industry today -impacts include: tinnitus, hypertension, heart disease, anooyance, stress, aggression (secondary impacts) -preventable with proper protective ear devices -silent environmental issue -reduction of noise: physical barriers (freeway noise barriers, vegetative barriers, policies and bylaws) -H.E.A.R Net: musicians raising awareness about music/concert induced hearing loss Water Supply and Quality: -surface water supplies most Canadian cities -as it is used, the water receives pollutants, including human wastes, that require the water to be treated again prior to its return to the hydrologic system -downstr
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