History 2301E Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Kokura, Franck Report, Nuclear Warfare

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Target Committee, Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945
Target qualifications
- Large urban area
- Capable of being damaged effectively
- Unlikely to be attacked by next august
- Kyoto: urban industrial, 1,000,000 population, intellectual center for Japan
- Hiroshima: important army depot, urban industrial area, good radar target, large part of city
would be damaged but has rivers
- Yokohama: urban industrial area unaffected by war but in the heaviest anti-aircraft concentration
in Japan
- Kokura Arsenal: one of the largest military arsenals in Japan, surrounded by industrial structures,
if bomb placed properly could also destroy less strong structures further away
- Niigata: increasingly important ports as other ports are damaged
- emperor’s palace: considered but not recommended because of low strategic value
Psychological factors in target selection
- want the greatest psychological effect against Japan
- want the initial use to be big for the important of the weapon to be internationally recognized
- Kyoto smart population would recognize the significance of the weapon
- Hiroshima size an advantage and nearby mountains would increase the damage done
- Emperor’s Palace – has the fame but least strategic value
Radiological effect
- No aircraft closer then 2.5 miles from point of detonation
- Aircraft must avoid the cloud of radio-active materials
Recommendations of the Immediate Use of Nuclear Weapons, June 16, 1945
- Will alter international relations
- Feels obligated to use the Weapons to help save American lives in the Japanese war
- Want to tell Britain, China, France and Russia that they’ve further progressed on atomic weapons,
that are ready to use during present war
o Welcome suggestions on how this can improve international relations
- Scientific colleague’s different views
o Technical aspect don’t want to use atomic weapons fear it will affect future
negotiations
o Immediate military use (bomb) opportunity of saving American lives, believes it will
improve international aspects in preventing war rather than the weapon
- No technical aspect that will end war no alternative to direct military use
- Scientists that don’t have the answers to political, social and military problems
The Franck Report, June 11, 1945
- Political and Social Problems
- Science has no weapon to protect against nuclear power
- American scientists were motivated to develop nuclear power because the Germans were also
working on this weapon and would have used it
o Germans have no moral constraints regarding its use
- Unable to avoid a nuclear armament racy
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Document Summary

Unlikely to be attacked by next august. Kyoto: urban industrial, 1,000,000 population, intellectual center for japan. Hiroshima: important army depot, urban industrial area, good radar target, large part of city would be damaged but has rivers. Yokohama: urban industrial area unaffected by war but in the heaviest anti-aircraft concentration in japan. Kokura arsenal: one of the largest military arsenals in japan, surrounded by industrial structures, if bomb placed properly could also destroy less strong structures further away. Niigata: increasingly important ports as other ports are damaged emperor"s palace: considered but not recommended because of low strategic value. Want the greatest psychological effect against japan. Want the initial use to be big for the important of the weapon to be internationally recognized. Kyoto smart population would recognize the significance of the weapon. Hiroshima size an advantage and nearby mountains would increase the damage done. Emperor"s palace has the fame but least strategic value.

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