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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Kangxi's Consolidation

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History 2601E
James Flath

Spence - Chapter 3 "Kangxi's Consolidation" The war of the three feudatories - Kangxi faced tough problem of unifying China under Manchu control - 3 feudatories = Wu Sangui, Shang Kexi, Geng Jimao - Kangxi unsure what to do with the 3 feudatories - Kexi and Jimao passed on land to sons upon death - Wu unwilling to leave his base peacefully - Geng Jingzhong (son of Geng Jimao) rebelled too - threw off alliance with Qing - declaring formation of a new dynasty (Zhou) - influenced people to be on his side by saying that he would restore Ming customs - Wu passed away from dysentery, Geng and Shang were captured - Kangxi almost lost his kingdom Taiwan and Maritime China - naval warrior Koxinga - 1650's - his fleets fought the Manchus along China's east coast - traded silks and luxury goods to supply for gun powder and other arteielly - 1659 - frontal assault on Nanjing - defeated - attacked Dutch fortress of Zeelandia (on Taiwan island) - allowed them to retire to Batavia in Dutch East Indies - took their goods and cash - ~$1 million worth - Shi Lang (Koxinga's father's former admiral) planned campaign and won a victory in the Pescadores over last Zheng forces - 4 maritime customs offices set up: Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu - failed to develop necessary mechanisms - preferred to work through kickbacks or purchased monopolies Wooing the intellectuals - lack of support for Qing among Chinese because of: - protracted resistance of Ming claimants - support given to Koxinga and his descendants - swift spread and near success of 3 Feudatories - Kangxi believed in Confucius' thoughts in "Analects" - powers of moral example and the central importance of education was absolute - great powers of Chinese state lay in control of examination system - Shunzhi revived this system - Kangxi continued holding examinations (even during civil war period) - 3 scholars stand out for their actions and writing (A) Wang Fuzhi - spent years with fugitive court of the prince of Gui - attacked individualistic philosophy of followers of mid-Ming scholar Wang Yangming - claimed that their insistence on finding the source of morality within individual conscience had wrecked moral fiber of time (B) Huang Zongxi - fought for years alongside Ming claimants and built barricades in mountains to slow advance of Manchu troops - suggested alternative to overcentrali
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