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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Yongzheng's Authority

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Western University
History 2601E
James Flath

Spence - Chapter 4 "Yongzheng's Authority" Economic structures - brief reign of Emperor Yongzheng (successor to Kangxi) - was stormy, complicated, important - Yongzheng aka Yinzhen (family name) - promoted brothers first to quiet their suspicions - trusted brother Yinxiang - strong practice of Buddhism - highly developed system of credit and banking (particularly in Amoy aka Xiamen) - further prosperity came from rich tea farms of region - mixture of historical and geographical reasons, region was violently split apart by fierce localisms - richer homes were fortified - tenancy rates were high - violent tension for recent immigrants or poorer inland farmers on their terraced mountainsides - mid-Qing society and economy facing problem of rapid rise in population - transition between Ming and Qing period had demographic significance because of: - foreign invasion - civil war - bandit upheavals - natural disaster - irrigation-system failures - extremely severe diseases - practice "partible inheritance" - diving up land among sons rather than giving to first son only - for women, attempts to not get married were disapproved - social discontent The question of taxes - Emperor Yongzheng concentrated many problems such as - structure of Chinese bureaucracy & finance in countryside - strengthening of central executive branch of state - development of effective and confidential information system - the rich would ab
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