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Health Science Notes Chapter 1 and 2.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Shauna Burke

Health Science Midterm Notes Semester 1 CHAPTER 1 & 2 Examples/Listings Social Determinants of Health  Housing  Biology and genetic endowment  Job security  Physical environments  Working conditions  Personal health practices  Gender  Coping skills  Aboriginal status  Culture  Education/literacy  Health services  Income  Quality of life  Social class/status  Psychological factors  Social safety net  Interpersonal factors  Poverty  Interpersonal dealings  Spirituality  Stress  Social environments  Social behaviour  Healthy child development Faults of the Biomedical Model  Specific etiology – specific cause of specific disease  Reductionism  Biological determinism  Interventionist bias  Victim blaming Increasing Life Expectance (according to Thomas McKeown)  Redistribution of economic resources  Improved working conditions  Public health measures  Improved o Public housing o Food regulation o Education o Sanitation reforms Environmental Issues associated with the Social Determinants of Health  Toxic pollution  Discrimination  Stressful work  Peer pressure Social Model of Health  to critique and add to the biomedical model 1. Societal Production and Distribution of Health and Illness a. Many illnesses are socially produced – an outcome of people’s material and living conditions b. Unequal distribution of wealth 2. Social Construction of Health and Illness a. What is considered a disease in one culture or time period may be considered normal and healthy elsewhere and at other times 3. Social Organization of Health Care a. A particular way a society organizes, funds and utilizes its health services b. Unequal relationships between the health professions can prevent the efficient use of health resources and the optimal delivery of health care to patients Parts of Sociological Imagination  Historical – past influences present  Cultural – culture impacts our lives  Structural – forms of social organization shape our lives  Critical – improvement on what exists Groups to use Population Health Template  Policy makers  Program planners  Grant viewers  Researchers  Health educators  Evaluators  Academics Prerequisites for Health  Peace  Shelter  Education  Food  Equity  Income  Stable eco-system  Sustainable resources  Social justice Means of Health Promotion Action  Build healthy public policy: legislation, fiscal measures, taxation and organizational change  Create supportive environments: work and leisure should be a source of health for people. Systematic assessment of the health impact of a rapidly changing environment (technology, energy production, work, urbanization) are essential  Strengthen community actions: their ownership and control of their own endeavours to enhance self-help and social support  Develop personal skills: providing information, education for health, and enhancing life skills, for people to exercise more control over their own health and over their environments.  Reorient health services: stronger attention to health research and organization of health services which refocuses on the total needs of the individual as a whole person  Moving into the future: the society one lives in created conditions that allow the attainment of health by all its members Health Field  Human biology  Lifestyle  Health care organization Key Figures  Louis-René Villermé (1782-1863)  Ruldolf Virchow (1821-1902) – investigated an epidemic of typhus in 1848; he argued that lack of democracy, feudalism, and unfair tax policies were the primary determinants of the inhavitants’ poor living conditions, inadequate diet, and poor hygiene that fuelled the epidemic  Friedrich Engels (mid 1800’s) – political economist; studied health conditions of working people in England and identified the factors responsible for social class differences in health  John Snow (1813-1858)  Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890) – key figure in the development of the first Public Health Act (1848), his ‘sanitation’  Louis Pasteur (1822-1896) – developed germ theory of disease; illness is caused by germs infecting organs in the human body; model of disease that became the foundation of modern medicine and the biomedical model  Robert Koch (1843-1910) – specific etiology  Thomas McKeown (1979,1988) – doctor and epidemiologist; exposed exaggerated role of medical treatment in improving population health; reasons for the increase in life expectancy are due to rising living condition standard, especially improved nutrition Timeline o Black Report Definitions Epidemiology: patters of disease in population. Social epidemiology is a sub-field aligned with sociology that focuses on the social determinants of illness Social Determinants: the economic and social conditions that influence the health of individuals, communities, and jurisdictions as whole; determines the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social, and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs, and cope with the environment. Specific Etiology: specific cause or origin for each specific disease Biomedicine/Biomedical Model: diagnosis and explanation of illness as a malfunction of the body’s biological mechanisms Cartesian Dualism: mind and body are separate entities; ignore psychological and subjective aspects of illness Reductionism: all illnesses can be explained and treated by reducing them to biological and pathological factors Biological Determinism: individual and group behaviour and social status is an inevitable result of biology  UNPROVEN (social, economic, health status) Victim Blaming: individuals being solely responsible for what happens to them (genetic fatalism-result of poor genetics- and lifestyle choices or factors) Risk factors: conditions that increase an individuals susceptibility to illness or disease Health Promotion: education and related organizational, economic and political interventions designed to promote individual behavioural and environmental changes conducive to good health Health: a
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