anatomy basic cells and tissues.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jeff St.Pierre

HS 2300: Systemic and Functional Anatomy Systemic and Functional Anatomy Basic Cells and Tissues Henry Grey • Wrote the first ever anatomy textbook – “Grey’s Anatomy” • Bible of anatomy • Number 1 resource Regional Anatomy • Studying 1 area – highlight and look at components • Cadavers and dissections • Bones and muscles Systemic Anatomy • Study individual systems and systems working together NOTE: 11 systems in the human body, 200 different types of cells in the body, and 4 different types of tissues in the body Anatomical Nomenclature • Anatomical language • Clear communication and consistency • Using anatomical directions, regions, and landmarks • Directional movement – rule of thumb: always use patient (e.g. break on patient’s right arm) • “Offset organ” = proximal/distal, medial/lateral The Anatomical Position • Important to have a position • Always used • Anatomical position = facing forward, upright position, palms facing upwards, feet forward • Anterior = towards chest • Posterior = towards back • Proximal = closest to point of attachment (moving closer to axial bones) • Distal = further away from point of attachment (moving away from axial bones) • Axial bones = trunk of the body • Appendicular bones = limbs (upper and lower) and girdles • Superior = closer to head (e.g. head is superior to belly button) • Inferior = closer to feet (e.g. feet are inferior to belly button) • Lateral = away from midline (e.g. shoulders are more lateral than nose) • Medial = towards midline (e.g. nose more medical than shoulders) • Superficial = looking at • Deep • Midline (axis of symmetry) = body is symmetrical superficially, but not deep (organs) Planes of Reference • Frontal/coronal plane HS 2300: Systemic and Functional Anatomy Systemic and Functional Anatomy Basic Cells and Tissues  Separates anterior and posterior  Not always center – can move in parallel fashion  Moving through the body • Sagittal (parasagittal) plane  Separates left and right halves (midsagittal)  Midsagittal = directly on midline  When it moves = sagittal • Transverse (horizontal) plane  Separates anterior and posterior Regions of the Body • Related to nomenclature • Regions are sometimes not clearly defined • Regions in which things are located • Planes = reference points – describe view • Frontal = coronal • Sides = sagittal • Top/bottom = transverse • E.g. popliteal region – popliteal muscle, popliteal vein, popliteal artery • If you know the region, you commonly know structures within it Body Cavities • Mostly axial (head and trunk) • Protect vital organs • Help to regionally organize the human body • Refer to lecture notes Body Compartments • Used in limbs to simplify information • Separated by joints and fascia • Share developmental origin • Share similar function and innervation • 1 compartment = 1 nerve (innervation) • muscles in compartment share function and innervation • Thigh (hip-knee) = 3 compartments 1. Medial 2. Anterior 3. Posterior • Lower leg (knee-foot) = 3 compartments 1. Lateral 2. Anterior 3. Posterior HS 2300: Systemic and Functional Anatomy Systemic and Functional Anatomy Basic Cells and Tissues Body Organization 1. Chemical Level  Basic building blocks  Macromolecules = lipids, DNA, RNA 2. Cellular Level  200 types!  Cells that make up tissue have a similar function 3. Tissue Level (starting point for this class) 4. Organ level 5. System level 6. Organismal level Atoms make up cells, cells make up tissues Organ = 4 tissues 4 Types of Tissues 1. Nervous Tissue 2. Epithelial Tissue 3. Connective Tissue 4. Muscle Tissue Epithelia • Many types in the body • Involved in many areas • Connective tissue – outer layering • Diffusion-like barrier (controls what moves from one system to the next) • Classification uses a 2 name system – first name indicates layering and second name indicates shape • Layers  Simple = 1 layer  Stratified = multilayers (stacks – levels of protection)  Pseudostratified = cells in 1 row – nuclei dispersed unevenly • Shape  Squamous = squashed – wider than they are tall – scale-like appearance (flat)  Cuboidal = cube – as wide as they are tall  Columnar = column – taller than they are wide • Simple squamous = good diffusion – transmission of has cells can occur (lungs) • Simple cuboidal, simple columnar = absorption/secretion • Stratified squamous = skin • Stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar = protection and secretion • Cells are closely opposed (cell junctions) – needs to move through – cannot move around • Cells are tightly adjoined to one another • Form surface linings and most glands • Epithelial tissue is avascular (without vascularization – no vessel moving into cell) but innervated HS 2300: Systemic and Functional Anatomy Systemic and Functional Anatomy Basic Cells and Tissues • Cells are polarized (apical vs. basal)
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