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Chapter 3

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Kinesiology 2276F/G
Craig Hall

Chapter 3: Theories & Models of Exercise Behavior 1 Social Cognitive Approaches Theories vs. Models - Theory:  Explains why phenomenon or behavior occurred  Can be graphically represented - Model:  Acts as a visual representation of a phenomenon or behavior  Does not always indicate WHY phenomenon occurred Importance of Theories - Allow us to better understand & predict PA behavior - Give us a scientifically validated blueprint from which to formulate effective behavioral interventions - Enable us to organize exercise behavior variables in a coherent manner Example of a Behavior Model of Exercise - Behavior of ex of a regular exerciser. This is WHAT happens – doesn’t say WHY Motivation Defined - Def’n: Degree of determination, drive, or desire with which an individual approaches (or avoids) a behavior - Direction & intensity of one’s effort:  Direction: motivation to ex or not  Intensity: really motivated or somewhat motivated - Origin:  Intrinsic: motivation from within – interesting, fun  Extrinsic: motivation from a force outside the individual – rewards Expectancy Value Theories - Motivation (& thus behavior) is predicated on the following:  An individual’s expected behavioral outcome  The value (or importance) that the individual places on that predicted outcome Expectancy-Value Approach Applied to Exercise Behavior Value Expected Outcome High Inability to exercise  failure to adopt Low Ability to exercise  failure to adopt Low Inability to exercise  failure to adopt (no start) High Ability to exercise  SUCCESSFUL adoption - Intervention: help people to realize value of exercise & help them boost their confidence of exercising  able to start exercising Theories that have grown from Expectancy-Value Approach - Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) - Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Similar theories - Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) - Self-Determination Theory (SDT): used a lot for research here – uses intrinsic motivation & various forms of extrinsic motivation September 18, 2013 Social Cognitive Theory/Self-Efficacy Theory - Exercise behavior is influenced by both human cognition & external stimuli: 1. Human cognition  Expectations, intentions, beliefs, attitudes: expectation of the outcome of ex 2. External stimuli: social pressures, experiences: what society says about ex, past experiences - A person may intend to be physically active, but external forces may prevent him/her from engaging in ex Self-Efficacy: heart/centre of SCT - Def’n: Describes how ind’s form perceptions about their capability to engage in specific behs - Focuses on the extent to which individuals feel they will be successful, given a particular set of abilities & their unique situations - A situation-specific form of self-confidence Sources of Self-Efficacy - Past performance accomplishments: an individual’s perception of degree of success having previously engaged in similar activities - Vicarious experiences: Modeling & Imagery.  Modeling: observation of others (especially those similar to you)  Imagery: imagine yourself being successful doing something - Social persuasion: verbal & non-verbal persuasive tactics. Eg: significant others, parents, coach - Physiological/Affective states: feelings of pain or fatigue; positive or negative emotions Diagram of SCT – Bandura (1986) Past Performance Behavior Vicarious Experience Cognitions Sources Social Persuasion Self-Efficacy Affect Physiological/Affective state Measuring Self-Efficacy: S-E scale for jogging - 0 = no confidence at all  100 = extremely confident - 1-3 miles: Scale = 100 - ≥ 7 miles: Scale = 0 Self-Efficacy Research - Researchers have identified different types of SE in ex: 3 types - task, coping & scheduling - Rodgers & Hall (2008): suggested 3 types instead of 5 1. Task: having confidence of doing the specific activity 2. Coping: also referred to as barrier SE: can u ex when it’s more difficult?  Eg: really tired, pouring rain outside  How confident can you ex under these conditions? 3. Scheduling: being able to make ex part of your routine. Can you schedule it in? Self-Efficacy Research: task, coping, scheduling - Research has shown relationships between SE & a variety of psychological, emotional & behavioral responses to exercise - For example:  Task SE  Initiate ex (some certain confidence to start exercising)  Coping SE  Self-regulation (self-control, planning)  Scheduling SE  Maintaining ex Limitations of SE - Theory is most predictive of behavior when the behavior is challenging or novel: if the behavior is mundane  SE is not good at predicting behavior - Influence is reduced as ex becomes habitual or well-learned (mundane) September 20, 2013 Dr. Polman (Guest Lecturer) – Stress, Coping, Emotions in Sport & Exercise Model of Stress - Stress is what you think it is Stressors Gender Sport Competition/Training Outcomes Individual Level Psychological: how we think Group Level Behavioral: how we behave Organizational Stress Cognitive: how we feel Extra-organizational Physiological: hormone Symptoms Frequency Temporal Variation Why Study Stress & Coping? Failure to cope with stress can result in - Decreased performance - Health problems & injury - Decreased satisfaction - Withdrawal - Not being able to pursue a career in professional support Stressor Research - Sources of (acute) stress:  Sport differences  Competition vs. training vs. rest days: athletes experience more stress during training  Sport vs. life stressors  Gender differences: females report higher stress than males. Result: females interpret situations different than males  experience higher stress - Symptoms of stress: trouble with sleeping, muscle soreness. More symptoms during training - Frequency, Temporal Variations: experience most stress during competition - Number of type of stressors not infinite: only 4-5 stressors that athletes usually report Practical Implications - Manage environment, social engineering - Stressor appraisal: build environment that is less stressful for people  encourage them to ex Mediators & Moderators - Outcome: successful  positive emotion  good influence on next performance BIG FIVE - Neuroticism: experience negative emotional states, irrational ideas, impulsive, self-conscious - Extraversion: experience positive emotions, outgoing, cheerful, active, self-assured - Agreeableness: pro-social, unselfish, compliant, trusting, modest, helpful - Conscientiousness: purposeful in cognition & beh, organized, strong minded, self-disciplined - Openness to experience: Creative, inquisitive, unconventional values, flexible way of thinking Coping & The Big Five - No relationship b/w big 5 & stressor type - Increased stress intensity: N: ↑, A: ↓ people with high N, low A experience high stress intensity - Lower perceived control: N: ↑, C: ↓ Correlations b/w coping, CE, & The Big Five - High N:  Emotion-focused coping strategies: ↑ venting emotions, ↑ wishful thinking
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