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Chapter 3

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Kinesiology 3388A/B

Chapter 3: Group Development Outline • Definitions • Types of Theories (5) • Turnover in Group Membership • Advantages and disadvantages • Replacement of coaches • Replacement of athletes Statement Examples? “Every group is like all groups in some Purpose respects” “Every group is like some-or perhaps Cohesiveness even most groups – in some respects” “Every group is like no other groups in Columbine Duo other respects” Groups do develop in common similar Expectations for behavior of each ways member Some things about all groups do not Members desire to stay together change All groups are also unique in changing Two sets of couples who have been and in staying the same married for 60 years "Every group is ilke all groups in some respects, like some - or perhaps even most groups in some respects, and like no other groups in other respects. Groups do change and develop in common similar ways . . ." Group Development Defined • The degree of maturity and cohesion a group achieves over time as members interact, learn about one another and structure relationships and roles within the group • Changes through time in the internal structures, processes, and cultures of the group • Interactions produce insight • Ususally people have different responsibilities Theories of Group Development • Over 100 different theories exist on how groups develop • Theories fall into approx. 5 types • Linear models: changes systematically over time; move sequentially through stages • Pendular models: switches, don’t keep the intensity building forever; swings in cohesion • Other models - in text • Adaptive response models • Robust equilibrium models • Punctuated equilibrium models Linear Models (Sequential Stage Perspective) - There are specific stages that groups pass through as they develop into a cohesive unit - y-axis = cohesion - x-axis = time - over time, cohesion will increase - linear positive relationship Tuckman’s Linear Model • Proposed that all groups go through four stages as they develop and then prepare for, and carry out the group’s task Stage Interpersonal Task Characteristics Characteristics Forming Orientation Group task and strategy Bonds develop identified Will always be stage 1 Storming Tension and conflict Resistance to group develop strategy Desire to stand out Will pass Norming Cohesion and roles Cooperation occurs develop Performing Relationships stabilized Task productivity Adjourning Member contact decreases Task completed Added this later Three important points should be highlighted about the schema • Five stages are sequential • Duration of time spent at any one stage is variable for different groups • All effective groups must go through the various stages Pendular Models (Repeating Cycles Perspective) - Groups experience shifts (pendulum like swings) in their level of cohesiveness over time - y = cohesion, x = time; Zigzags upwards, not a linear fashion - Represents a less deterministic view in that it emphasizes the shifts that occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of the group Schutz’s Interpersonal Model Stage Characteristics Inclusion Members determine how much contact they want with the group Control Members determine leadership status and power relationships Affection Group becomes emotionally integrated - proposed that when a group breaks up it does so in a reverse order Stages in Group Breakup Stage Characteristics Affection Members lose affection for one another first Control Control issues become irrelevant Inclusion Members absent, late, depart early An Example of Another Pendular Model Stage Characteristics 1. Orientation… Team unity is high 2. Differentiation and conflict… Group subdivides and conflict is high 3. Resolution and Cohesion… Cohesion increases as group faces a common threat 4. Termination… If group successful…cohesion is high If non-successful…cohesion is low Additional Theories • Adaptive response models
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