Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter 7: 3343 T&D Chapter 7 Textbook Notes

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T&D Chapter 7 Textbook Notes
White Spot
In house skills upgrading program Red Seal certification = standardized certification for Cdn chefs
symbol of quality takes 3 years annual month-long classroom component can interfere with
career and will sometimes leave a restaurant
First to offer all the components of a full apprenticeship program in house usually only offered at
institutions oduted y White Spot’s Corporate Traiig Chef increased retention
Can develop their skills and pursue certification on the job without disrupting their regular work
schedule and earnings
On the job training - trainee receives instruction & training at work station from a supervisor or
experienced worker
Useful for small businesses (>43% of Canadian SMEs)
Most common approach to training
Most misused:
Often not well planned/structured, time consuming
People assigned to train have no training to be trainers
Potential transfer of undesirable habits/attitudes
Internal trainers sometimes feel threatened by new trainees
On-the-Job Training (OJT) Methods
OJT = trainee receives instruction at their workstation from a supervisor or an experienced co-
McD need to train thousands of new crew members every year uses a buddy system
combined with hands on training and visual aid (laminated pictures to show the steps at each
station as a form of visual reinforcement => higher trainee self-efficacy and performance
Usual for small businesses lack of investment to conduct training
Most common and most misused not well planned and structured trainers not trained not
familiar with learning principles like active practice, feedback and reinforcement
Bad work habits and attitudes can also be passed down
Trainees might not learn the important skills if the trainers feel that they may lose their jobs
to the new employees in the future
Tie osuig ad soe feel pealized eause they do’t get paid as uh or eet their
goals due to the time of training
Can result in inconsistent, inefficient and ineffective training if planned then can be highly
Study highlights the importance of building structure into OJT and the positive effect it can
have on trainee learning and performance
Approaches to OJT
On the spot lecture = gather trainees and tell them how to do their job
Viewed performance/feedback = watch the person at work and give constructive feedback eg when
a sales mgr makes a call with a new salesperson
Following Nellie = supervisor trains a senior employee who in turn trains new employees showing
the ropes
Job-aid approach = a job aid (step by step instructional video) is followed while the mg monitors
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The training step = trainer systematically introduces the steps
Sequence = follows a plan
6 OJT Methods
Job Instruction Training
Formalized, structured, and systematic approach to OJT
Has the principles of behaviour modelling (trainees observe a model performing a task and then
attempts to imitate the demonstrated behaviour)
Trainer demonstrates task provides employee the opp to practise while the trainer gives
feedback and reinforcement oitors the traiees’ perforae o the jo
Observation, rehearsal, reinforcement and transfer
4 steps
One. Preparation
Trainer breaks down the job into small tasks, prepares all the EQ and supplies necessary to
do the task and creates a time frame to learn each task
Need a communication strategy that fits the trainee and to find out what they already
know the background, capabilities, and attitudes of trainees and the nature of the
tasks to be performed before choosing a technique or combo
Second stage of prep
Putting the trainee at ease
Guaranteeing the learning - that learning is possible and that the trainer has the ability
to teach adding to self-efficacy (judgments people have about their ability to
successfully perform a specific task and that it is a key factor in the success of the
training program
Building interest and showing personal advantage training will lead to something
positive creates the opportunity to design rewards like more self-esteem, easier
work, higher-level work, less routine, more control over work, greater opportunity or
security (WHIFM)
To identify those who are not responding diffuse resistance train employees in order of
their perceived enthusiasm when people see others enjoying the rewards of training they
are more likely to agree to be trained
Two. Instruction
Telling, showing, explaining and demonstrating
Show the trainee how to perform the job
Present only as much as one can absorb
Repeat step one if necessary
Explain why and how, point out possible difficulties and safety procedures and
encourage questions
Repeat the and explain key points in more detail
Safety, show how the job fits into larger systems, show why the job is important
Repeat step 2 if needed and encourage questions
Allow the trainee the see the whole job again
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Three. Performance
Traiee perfors the task uder the traier’s guidae ad the traier proides feedak
and reinforcement
Ask the trainee to perform less difficult parts of the job
Allow the trainee to perform the entire job
Four. Follow-Up
Moitorig the traiee’s performance provide support and feedback gradually taper off
instruction as the employee gains confidence and skills
Tips for Trainers
Set of rules based on three British National Training Award winners
Job instruction training should not be managed differently than other types of training
Should be integrated with other training methods
Ownership must be maintained even when constraints are used
Trainers must be chosen with care and trained properly
SMEs may need a train-the-trainer program
Must want to be trainers and have good communication skills patience and respect for
differences in the ability to learn since the trainer sets mood of the experience
Trainers must be recognized and rewarded for training others not necessarily just an increased
Adding variety to work, respect from new employees, training certificates and the prospect
of promotion/cross training
Performance Aids
A device at the job site that helps an employee perform their job increase the chances of
employee application useful when performance is difficult or infrequent or done slowly or
consequences of poor performance are serious routine trouble shooting and repair responses
can be performed more quickly with less frustration ca’t rely o eory if they ust reat
Signs/prompts, trouble-shooting aids, instructions in sequence, a special tool or gauge,
flashards, posters ad heklists (hih a e reieed y aagers util it is’t eessary
Audio aids must communicate intent eg. buzzer alarm
Training Today 7.1 Operating Room Checklist
Developed by WHO surgical safety list requires surgeons to perform safety checks at three
times during the surgical procedures before induction of anaesthesia (sign in), before skin
incision (time out), and before the patient leaves the operating room (Sign out)
Total of 19 checks a checklist coordinator is needed to confirm
Use resulted in one-third fewer surgery related-deaths and complications
Considered a no-cost innovation and one of the most significant safeguards
Job Rotation
Trainees are exposed to different jobs, functions, and areas within an organization broadens an
idiidual’s koledge ad skills y proidig the ith ultiple perspectives and areas of
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