Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter 1: 3343 T&D Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

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T&D Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
The training & development process
Opening vignette: example of how to design, deliver, and evaluate t+d programs
Police got 1 day mental health training with actors
Goal was to improve interactions btwn officers + mentally ill individuals by improving officers'
empathy, communication skills, and ability to de-escalate potentially difficult situations
Encouraged officers to verbally express empathy, maintain eye contact, use non-threatening body
language, "mirroring" actor's movements, and sharing non-threatening info
Want officers to see things in different light
6 months later those with training were more effective in recognizing mental health issues; 40%
increase in ability to recognize, and also improvement in ability to communicate with the public
and verbally de-escalate situation, and in level of empathy
Also used less physical force/weapons
Plane crash example
Crew did not have the practical strategies to reconcile their different perceptions of the situation
and the first officer was not 'sufficiently assertive' in making his case to abort the landing. The
board is also urging Transport Canada to overhaul its outdated regulations regarding crew
resource (CRM) training
Mistake was training for half a day instead of 2, covered 3/8 topics
Didn't provide practical strategies for decision making + problem solving, communication, and
workload management
Crew resource (CRM) training: team training that teaches team members to use all available resources -
people, info, and equipment
Focuses on critical cognitive + interpersonal skills - communication, problem solving, decision
To improve crew coordination and performance
Research finds it has a + effect on attitudes, learning, and behavioural changes on the job
Police shooting mentally ill people
One recommendation is for officers to consider mental state and whether a person is in crisis
when advancing with a sharp weapon
Another is there is no fixed distance at which shooting is necessary
Former Supreme Court Justice Frank Lacobucci made recommendations to improve police officer's
interactions with emotionally disturbed/mentally ill persons in crisis situations
Success + competitiveness are highly dependent on t+d
Continuous learning + skill development has become a key factor
o This and transfer of knowledge are key factors in fostering creativity + promoting
organizational excellence, according to report by the Conference Board of Canada
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Performance management
Performance management: The process of establishing performance goals and designing
interventions and programs to motivate + develop employees to improve their performance
Signals to employees what's important, ensures accountability for beh + results, and helps
improve performance
Comprehensive, ongoing, continuous process
Starting point is defining performance, setting performance expectations, and setting
performance goals
Aka creation of an org environment conducive to learning and optimum performance
Ensure alignment with department/org goals; manager meets w employee
SMART goals: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and have a time frame
Once set, important to monitor performance + provide ongoing feedback
Formal feedback should be included. Usually includes use of standard rating form where manager
+ employee (self-appraisal) evaluate the employee's performance on a # of
behavioural/performance dimensions + review extent of goal accomplishment
Also involves performance consequences to reward employees for accomplishing goals
Critical component of PM is employee t+d and the creation of a development plan for employees
Development plan involves programs + activities designed to help employees achieve their
Employee t+d in the middle of figure 1.1 bc it connects to all other components of the MP process
Each of the components of the PM process provides info on the developmental needs of
employees + lead to action plans
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Training and development
Training: formal and planned efforts to help employees acquire KSAs to improve performance in their
current job
Usually consists of a short-term focus on acquiring skills
Development: formal and planned efforts to help employees acquire KSAs required to perform future
job responsibilities. Often for managerial careers
For long-term achievement of individual career goals + org objectives
To prepare for promotions, future jobs, additional resps
Human resource development: systematic and planned activities that are designed by an org to provide
employees with opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands
Main functions are t&d, org development, and career development
Core of all 3 is LEARNING
Benefits of training and development
Benefits to organizations
Facilitate org strategy, increase effectiveness, improve employee recruitment + retention
Link training to strategy > training becomes strategic activity that operates in concern w other
Do more + better work, make fewer errors, require less supervision, have more + attitudes, lower
rates of attrition
Link btwn training + performance strongly supported by research
One study showed gains in productivity + larger operating profits
10% incr in training produced 3% incr in productivity over 2 years
Positively related to human resource outcomes (employee attitudes, motivation, beh),
organizational performance outcomes (performance + productivity), and financial outcomes
Companies that invest have higher revenues, profits, and productivity growth than those
with less training
Investment in workplace training influences org performance through learning outcomes
More effective than new operational initiatives such as new tech
Empowerment + training related to productivity > 9% increase in value added per employee
Research shows key factor associated with the success of a franchise is the LENGTH of
training (# of weeks)
Employee recruitment + retention
Esp attractive for employees under the age of 30 who consider their career growth and
professional development more important than salary
Often used to incr org attractiveness to prospective employees and to retain current ones
For many, it's the #1 attraction and retention strategy
99% of respondents said there are job areas in which training would be useful to them, and in
which training decreases their willingness to move to another company
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