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Physics 1029A/B
Martin Zinke- Allmang

Chapter 12 – Static Fluids  Pascal’s Law states the difference between the pressures at two different positions in a fluid of constant density is proportional to the vertical distance between these two positions. The proportionality factor is the product of the density of the fluid and the gravitational acceleration  Archimede’s Principle: when an object is immersed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the object equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object  Laplace’s Law states that the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of a fluid with a curved surface is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature of the curved surface. This means that a smaller bubble, droplet, or cylinder has a larger pressure difference Δp Chapter 13 – Fluid Flow  Laminar flow is established when (i) flow lines in the fluid never cross each other, and (ii) flow tubes never penetrate each other  The equation of continuity is an expression of the conservation of mass or the conservation of volume of an incompressible fluid. It states that the volume flow rate is constant along a tube. The fluid flows faster when it passes through a section of the tube with a smaller cross-section  Bernoulli’s Law is an expression of the conservation of energy for a closed system. It states that an increase in the speed of an ideal dynamic fluid in a tube is accompanied by a drop in its pressure  In a Newtonian fluid, the inelastic interaction with the fluid-confining walls causes velocity gradients. Viscosity replaces the assumption of elastic collisions required between the ideal dynamic, fluid and its confining walls. In Newtonian fluids the flow is laminar and viscous  Poiseuille’s Law states the volume flow rate of a Newtonian fluid through a cylindrical tube is proportional to the fourth power of the radius of the tube  Ohm’s Law states the volume flow rate of a Newtonian fluid is proportional to the pressure difference along the tube, and that the proportionality constant is the flow resistance  Kirchhoff’s Law for serial flow resistances states that flow resistances in series are added to obtain the equivalent flow resistance  Kirchhoff’s Law for parallel flow resistances states that flow resistances in parallel are added to inversely to obtain the equivalent flow resistance Chapter 14 – Elasticity & Vibrations  A material is called elastic when it responds to external forces (stress) with a linear deformation (strain). Elastic deformations are reversible. A material is called plastic when it responds to a stress in a non-linear fashion. Plastic deformations are irreversible  Hooke’s Law applies in the elastic regime of a material and states that the stress and the strain of the material are linearly proportional  An object on an ideal spring that undergoes a small displacement from its equilibrium position is a valid cases for Hooke’s Law  A system with a linear restoring force (Hooke’s Law) has an elastic potential energy that is proportional to the square of the displacement from the equilibrium position of the system  The amplitude A is the maximum displacement of a vibrating object  The simple harmonic oscillator is a good model of chemical molecules in their ground state
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