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Not only must a national liberation movement decide how to confront a foreign power
endowed with considerable resources, but it must also convince local citizens to join in
and figure out what to do with those who do not
Decolonization began almost as soon as the first empires were established
Leaders of newly elected or appointed indigenous governments negotiated their
independence over a period of time
Achieving independence and becoming a member of the UN was the easy part for some
countries. Some slipped into economic and political chaos almost as soon as their new
flags were raised
Most enjoyed positive, if not sustainable growth
To address this problem of dependency governments across the developing world
adopted state centered economic strategies
Self-actualization of all their people the achievement of a deeper and more
meaningful sense of self and fulfillment
Expanded the size of the public sector restricted foreign imports and foreign
investment as a matter of national policy and directed considerable money into local
These actors had always been skeptical of the nationalist approaches to development
and instead advocated a more classically liberal approach of limited government and
increased free trade and investment
The result has been a dramatic increase in foreign investment in the developing world,
although not a dramatic increase in public welfare
India has found that interacting with the outside world can be extremely painful and has
therefore displayed considerable ambivalence
The British took over large tracts of land to cultivate cash crops for export these cash
crops generated few benefits to Indian farmers
On the other hand, wit these military sacrifices added to an increasingly depressed
economy the experience of life without the British presence made their full return in the
1920s deeply resented
Muslims in particular sought to protect themselves from what they thought would be a
future nation dominated by nationalistic Hindus
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