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Canadian 4 - Visions of Canada.docx

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Political Science
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Political Science 2230E
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Lecture – October 9, 2012 What does a society-centered approach to politics entail?  Once we start discussing people, and various peoples place in the political order, politics gets more intense and more emotional.  When states decide peoples political claims it becomes the recognition of some and the over looking of others. o Self worth, identity and political justice. o Determination of who is politically significant and who is not.  State policies also distribute power (not just about recognition) but once a group is politically recognized they automatically become more powerful than those that are not politically recognized.  Efforts of different groups to gain recognition – minorities trying to be explicitly stated in the constitution (constitutional recognition)  Different groups in Canada have a different vision of Canada o Politically arrangement is driving their policy stance o Disagree over what kind of nation Canada is and should be. What are the four historical cleavages that Canada’s political leadership has been forced to respond to?  Indigeneity o Dissatisfied with the recognition they have o Claim that their sovereignty was not acknowledged as pre existing people.  Linguistic o 1960s when there was a new form of modern Quebec nationalism o Claim to be a distinct society – French/Canadian people  Multiculturalism o Every single Canadian is deserving of recognition o Every single Canadian has a culture and each culture is deserving of this culture.  Regionalism o Recurring episodes of regional conflict o Territorial defined interests  Western and Atlantic regionalism  Tell us that Canada is complex and these different interests bring to bear on states  Bring to light different views on how the Canadian state ought to be and how politics should be arranged. o Look incompatible o Question for the state becomes – is their any way to satisfy the demands of all these cleavages and if not, who do you chose to satisfy?  More and more groups are being added making to more complex. o No single vision of Canada – multiple complex visions that conflict which lead to fundamental disagreements that federal legislation ahs to broker. What does the ‘Compact of Provinces’ vision of Canada entail? Which cleavage does it correspond to?  Compact of provinces flows out of regionalism o Various provinces came together and formed Canada o Community of provinces and all of them have equal standings. o All provinces have to have the same power and political standing o Gives rise to a number of different proposals  Decentralization  Defend the powers of the provinces against the federation.  Allows provincial governments to have the power to serve their local communities in how they wish.  Clashes with Quebec wanting to be recognized as a distinct society – unequal  A greater say for provinces at the federal level – Triple E Senate  Elected – equal number of senators  Equal – senators should be elected by the voters of each province  Effective – the senate would actually have sufficient power in parliament to oversee federal policy making on matters of provincial concern. o The west supports this point of view the most – because they believe the federal system works for central Canada and against the West. What does the ‘Compact of Two Founding Peoples’ vision of Canada entail and what are its two variants? Which cleavage does it correspond to?  Takes French and English nations or founding peoples  Federal bargain is understood as the compact of two founding peoples – British and French  Corresponds to the Linguistic Cleavage  Territorial dualism o Two nations and those nations each have their own territory  Quebec – French  ROC (rest of Canada) o Government of Quebec has a specific responsibility that is fundamentally different to any other province  The political expression of a group of people  The homeland of French Canada  Equal in status to ROC.  French nation and Quebec are inseparable under this vision.  A nation with its own institution of apparatus in Quebec o Political ramifications  Fundamental reconstruction of federal power  Decentralization from Ottawa to Quebec
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