IR Chapter 4 tb notes.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Rado Dimitrov

International Relations Chapter 4 – Rivalries and Relations among the Great Powers Textbook Notes The Quest for World Leadership  *long cycle theory* - theory that focus on the rise and fall of the leading global power as the central political process of the modern world system o Suggests you should consider how shifts in the relative strength of great powers affect world politics  Transitions in world leadership unfold through a series of distinct phases where periods of global war are followed by periods of international rule making and institution building  Over the past five centuries, each global war = new hegemon  *hegemon* - a preponderant state capable of dominating the conduct of international political and economic relations o Every previous hegemon has overextended itself The First World War  Serbian nationalist seeking to free his ethnic group from Austrian rule assassinated Ferdinand o Catalyst of the War Causes of World War 1  Structuralism – neorealist proposition that states’ behavior is shaped primarily by changes in the properties of the global system, such as shifts in the balance of power, instead of by individual heads of states or states’ internal characteristics o Global level o Ex. Britain’s sea power gave it command of the world’s shipping lanes, control over empire stretching from Med. To SE Asia o Shifting of balance of power = causal factor o Tendency for opposed conditions to form so that distribution of military power is balanced to prevent any single power from threatening or dominating others o Triple alliance = Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire o Triple Entente = Britain, France, Russia  Nationalism – a mind set glorifying a particular state and the nationality group living in it, which sees the states interest as a supreme value o State level o Glorified the distinctiveness of their national heritage began championing their own country above all others  Rational Choice o Leaders make decisions based upon careful evaluation of the relative usefulness of alternative options for realizing the best interests of themselves and their states Consequences of WW1  Three empires collapsed  New global system to prevent another war – League of Nations  Liberalism  Treaty of Versailles  Germanies military = massively cut The Second World War  Axis trio – Germany, Japan, and Italy  Grand alliance – Britain, France and the US The Causes of WW2  Falling of Germany’s government  Support of extremist parties like Nazi party or socialist party  British PM and leaders of Italy and French gave into Germanys expansion demands  *appeasement* - a strategy of making concessions to another state in the hope that, satisfied, it will not make additional claims  Japanese nationalists led their country on the path to imperialism and *colonialism* o Colonialism – the rule of a region by an external sovereign power  France signed a treaty to protect Poland, Germany’s next victim, and when Germany invaded Poland, France declared war on Germany  US, GB and France viewed Japans imperial expansion a threat  Japan forged the Tripartite pact with Germany and Italy that pledged the three Axis powers to come to one another’s aid if attacked by another great power, such as US  *isolationism* - a policy of withdrawing from active participation with other actors in world affairs and instead concentrating state efforts on managing internal affairs  USA ended aloofness and isolationism  Primarily German aggression Underlying Causes at Three Analytic Levels  Structural realism emphasizes polarity as a defining feature of the international system as a key factor  *multipolarity* - the distribution of global power into three or more great power centers, with most other states allied with one of the rivals  Resentment over treaty of Versailles, Russian rev, rise of Fascism, increased number of states  Collapse of the global economic system  *political economy* - a field of study that focuses on the intersection of politics and economics in international relations  German nationalism inflamed latent *irredentism* and rationalized the expansion of Germany to regain provinces lost in previous wars  *irredentism* - a movement by an ethnic national group to recover control of lost territory by force so that the new state boundaries will no longer divide the group  Rise of *fascism* - a far right ideology that promotes extreme nationalism and the establishment of an authoritarian society o Single party with dictatorial leadership o Mussolini  Anti Semitic racism against the Jews – Nazi *ideology* o A set of core philosophical principles that leaders and citizens collectively construct about politics, the interests of political actors, and the ways people ought to behave The Consequences of WW2  Big three leaders – Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin = Yalta Conference o 1945 summit meeting of Allied victors to resolve postwar territorial issues and voting procedures in the UN to collectively manage world order  Transformation it caused after a short interlude, distribution of global power from mulipolarity to bipolarity o Bipolarity – a condition in which power is concentrated in two competing centers so that the rest of the states define their allegiances in terms of their relationships with both rival great power super states or “poles”  Cold War – the 42 year rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as their competing coalitions, which sought to contain each other’s expansion and win world wide predominance The Cold War The Causes and Evolutionary Course of the Cold War  Global level - Cold War resulted from a transition in power and leadership that propelled the United States and the Soviet Union to the top of the international hierarchy and made their rivalry inescapable  Encouraged both competitors to carve out and establish wide spheres of influence or specified areas of the globe o Spheres of influence – a region of the globe dominated by a great power  State level - Cold war was an extension of the superpowers’ mutual disdain for each other’s professed beliefs about politics and economics  Individual level – cold war as being fueled by the superpowers’ misperceptions of each other’s motives  *domino theory* - suggested that communism was driven to knock over one country after another, expansionistic Confrontation, 1947 – 1962  *Truman Doctrine*- united states would pursue for next 40 years o Declaration by President Harry S Truman that U.S. foreign policy would use intervention to support peoples who allied with the United States against communist external subjugation  Strategy called *containment*, sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet influence by encircling the Soviet Union and intimidating it with the threat of a military attack  Containment – a strategy of confronting attempts of a power rival to expand its sphere of influence, with either force of the threat of force, preventing it from altering the balance of power  Cold war crisis – communist coup d’etat in Czechoslovakia  *peaceful coexistence* - soviet leader Nikiti Krushchev’s 1956 doctrine that war between capitalist and communist states is not inevitable and that inter-bloc competition could be peaceful From Coexsistance to Détente, 1963-1978  Nixon initiated a new approach to Soviet relations that in 1969 he officially labeled *détente* o Détente – strategy seeking to relax tensions between adversaries to reduce possibility of war o Foreign policy strategy that sought to create “an environment in which competitors can regulate and restrain their differences and ultimately move from competition to cooperation  US linkage strategy was to shape superpower relations and lessen incentives for war through the continuation of mutually rewarding exchanges o Linkage strategy – a set of assertions claiming that leaders should take into account another country’s overall behaviour when deciding whether to reach agreement on any one specific issue so as to link cooperation to rewards  *rapprochement* - or reconciliation, of the rivals states’ interests o In diplomacy, a policy seeking to re-establish normal cordial relations between enemies The Post- Cold War Era  Bipolarity was superseded by unipolarity - a hegemonic configuration of power with only one predominant superstate o Unipolarity – a condition in which the global system has a single dominant power or hegemon  American continues to wield enormous *soft power*because it is the hub of global communications and popular culture, values spread all of the world  Soft power – the capacity to co-opt through such intangible factors as the popular American continues to wield enormous *soft power*because it is the hub of global communications and popular culture, values spread all of the world o Soft power – the capacity to co-opt through such intangible factors as the popularity ofa state’s values and institutions  Utilitarianism derives from the desire for control over the flexible conduct of a great power’s foreign relations, independent of control by or pressure from other great powers o Independent self help strategies in foreign policy  A strategy of selective engagement that concentrates external involvements on vital national interests, play the role of a balancer o Acting alone may appear expedient, but it erodes international support on issues such as combating terrorism o Selective engagement – a great power grand strategy using economic and military power to influence only important particular situations – global policeman and an uninvolved isolationist  Every previous leading great power has been vulnerable to *Imperial overstretch*, the gap between internal resources and external commitments o The historic tendency for hegemons to sap their own strength through costly imperial pursuits and military spending that weaken their economies  Uni-mulitpolar – a global system where there is a single dominant power, settlement of key international issues always requires action by the dominant power in combination with that of other great powers  A weaker united States is less willing and able to play a leading role in sorting out the world’s economic and political cries  Post American world – US remains in the top tier with many of its Western allies, but it is no longer the single most prosperous country  Entering “Asian Century”  Development of a *Concert* or a cooperative agreement, among the great powers to manage the global system jointly and to prevent international disputes form escalating to war o Concert – a cooperative agreement among great powers to jointly manage the global system  9/11 is a more recent example of multilateralism to construct a concert through collective approaches o Cooperative approaches to managing shared problems through collective and coordinated action Chapter 6 – Nonstate Actors and the Quest for Global Community  New construction of the concept of responsible sovereignty , which requires states to protect not only their own people but to cooperate across borders to protect global resources and address transnational threats Nonstate actors in World Politics  Two types of nonstate actors is IGOs (intergovernmental organizations) are international organizations whose members are states, and NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) are associations composed of private individuals Intergovernmental Organization’s  Created by states, for states to solve problems  Regarded as more important than NGOS, because members are powerful state governments = more permanent  Only 35 IGOS = intercontinental organizations and only 35 are like the UN, universal membership IGO’s Nongovernmental organizations  All nonstate and non-profit organizations that operate as intermediaries to build transnational bridges between those with resources and a targeted group  Differ widely in their characteristics  Span virtually every facet of political, social, and economic activity in an increasingly borderless globalized world, ranging from earth sci to ethnic unity, healthcare, language, history, culture, edu etc.  Image of NGOs widely accepted throughout the world is very positive  NGOs as private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development  Many interact with IGOs o Work and lobby together in pursuit of common policies and programs Prominent Intergovernmental Organization’s  UN and EU UN  Best known global organization  Nearly universal membership – 193 members  51 states that joined at the UNs birth in 1945 Agenda  Peace and security  Reforms were inspired by the liberal conviction that both war and the management of other global problems can best be controlled by managing global anarchy  Centered on o Maintaining international peace and security o Friendly relations among states (equal rights, and self determination of peoples) o Achieving international cooperation in solving economic, social , cultural or humanitarian character o Harmonizing the actions of countries  UNs 6 fundamental values : international freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, sense of shared responsibility  Expanding agenda of urgent military and non-military problems Organizational Structure – six major organs General Assembly  Main deliberative body  all members equally represented according to a one-state/one-vote  Majority vote Security Council  Threats to international peace and security  Five permanent members with the power to veto substantive decisions – the US, Russia, China, France, UK  Original 5 continue to run the show Economic and Social Council  UN’s social and economic programs Trusteeship Council  Supervising the administration of territories that had not achieved self rule, suspended operation in 1994 International Court of Justice  Jurisdiction is based on the consent of the disputants Secretariat  International civil servants who perform the administrative and secretarial function in the UN Budget Controversy  The UN budget consists of 3 distinct elements: the core budget, the peacekeeping budget, and the budget for voluntary programs  Assessments for states capacity to pay and how much to pay to the UN ( US pays the most, 22%)  The richest 20% pays 95% of UN’s budget  Those with the most votes (less developed countries) do not have the money, and those who pay the most and are most developed do not have the votes  Small budget compared to most government budgets, and is less than 3 percent of the world’s military spending Future Challenges  Reasons to be optimistic about the organizations long-term prospects to live up to its creators’ bold mandate to attack world problems Other prominent IGOs  Focus of the International political economy (most important 3): World Trade Organization, The World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund  Need for stable international economic order  Multilateral cooperation enables those cooperating states to receive benefits that they would not otherwise receive  Creation of international *regimes* as well as authoritative IGO o Regimes – norms, rules, and procedures for interaction agreed to by a set of states WTO  Promote liberal free trade  Developed as a result of voluntary agreements states reached to surrender some of their sovereign decision making freedom The World Bank  Established to support reconstruction efforts in Europe after WW2  Shifted from reconstruction to developmental assistance  Decision making authority vested in a board of governors  Meets annually in Washington DC  Five countries with the largest number of shares in the World Banks capital stock ( US, Germany, Japan, France and UK) appoint their directors and remaining directors appointed elected by their states or elected by a group of countries  Success in addressing poverty  Financing private lending institutions while insisting that democratic reforms are made a condition for economic assistance International Monetary Fund  Designed to maintain currency exchange stability by promoting international monetary cooperation  Sixteen specialized agencies  IMF operates like a credit union that requires each participant to contribute to a common pool for funds from which it can borrow when the needs arises  Strict conditions to its loans Regional Intergovernmental Organizations  IGOs are run by the states that join them  When states dominate universal internal organization like the UN, the prospects for international cooperation can decline  The EU serves as a model for other regional IGOs to emulate as the globe’s greatest example of peaceful cross border cooperation producing an integrated security community o European Union – regional organization that has since expanded geographically and in its authority o Security community – a group of states whose high level of institutionalized collaboration results in the settlement of disputes by compromise  Third Way – seek to soften the cruel social impact of free market individualism by allowing government intervention in order to preserve social justice and prevent the deprivations caused by disruptions in the global economy The EU  Multipurpose nonstate actor EU Expansion and Political Integration  Attacking incentives for war  Reform program aimed at the political integration of Europe to build a new supranational institution o Political integration – processes and activities by which the populations of many or all states transfer their loyalties to a merged political and economic unit  15 countries by 1997: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (original 6)  27 members by 2007 EU Organization and Management  Includes a council of ministers, European commission, a European parliament and a court of justice  Council of ministers represents the governments of the EU’s member states and retains final authority  European Commission – the executive organ administratively responsible for the European Union ( 32 commissioners)  Court was given responsibility for adjudicating claims and conflicts among EU governments  Decisions are binding distinguishes the European Court of Justice from most other international tribunals EU decision-making challenges  Pooled sovereignty – legal authority granted to an IGO by its members to make collective decisions regarding specified aspects of public policy heretofore made exclusively by each sovereign government Other Regional IGOS  The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)  The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), to promote regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation  The Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) to promote trade and economic integration among its ten Arab members  The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) to promote economic development and integration  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to promote regional economic cooperation  The Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) to promote and regulate reciprocal trade among its twelve members  The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) a military alliance to deter Soviet Union in Western Europe in 1949, promote democratization and to police civil wars  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) to promote regional economic development and integration and alleviate poverty  Governments creating them concentrate on one or two major goals  Chances of political integration wane without geographical proximity, steady economic growth, similar political systems, supportive public opinion led by enthusiastic leaders, cultural homogeneity,…..  NGOs – they include not only transitional humanitarian organizations, but also multinational corporations, transnational religions and ethnic groups, and global terrorist and criminal networks Prominent Types of Nongovernmental Organizations  Non state nations that include ethnic nationalities and indigenous peoples, transnational religious movements, multinational corporations, and issue advocacy groups  Non state nations – national or ethnic groups struggling to obtain power and/or statehood Nonstate Nations: Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Peoples  Unitary actor  Ethnic nationalism reduces the relevance of the unitary state theory o Devotion to a cultural, ethnic or linguistic community  Individuals who think nationalistically are very likely to pledge their primary allegiance not to the state and government that rules them but, rather, to a politically active ethnic group whose members identify with one another because they perceive themselves as bound together by kinship, language and common culture o Ethnic group = people whose identity is primarily defined by their sense of sharing a common ancestral nationality, language, cultural heritage and kinship  Ethnicity is socially constructed, in that members of an ethnic or r
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