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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Political Science
Political Science 2246E
Ross Gibbons

Chapter 4Organization Theory and Canadian Public AdministrationThe Impact of Organization TheoryMarx assertion that the class is the most important division in society has important division in society has important implications for who occupies decisionmaking posts in the political and bureaucratic realSome research in Canada points to a dominant elite representing directly or indirectly the capitalist class whose dominance is reinforced through a network of social economic and political tiesThis elite dominate the top positions in government who generally act in the best interest of their own classMarxist theory suggests that the organizations of the state are designed to perpetuate this classs power and influence o this is too simplistic rather the state is set up so that most of the time it acts in the longterm interests of the capitalist class1918 reforms to the public service very strongly reflect Weberian sensibility o Those reforms introduced the concept of merit into the public service and entrenched hierarchy a job classification system professionalism and competitive examsTaylors major contribution was first the principle that work ought to be divided up so as to take maximum advantage of employees skills o In the public sector elaborate job classification schemes have existed at least since the 1918 Civil Service Act o Second principle of homogeneity also called unite of direct which asserts that similar activities ought to be grouped together in the same unit under a single supervisor and a single planScientific management attempted to replace imprecise job criteria based on workers personal characteristics with the specification of job duties and requirements o Reflected in the Civil Service Reform Act of 1918 which was bend on eliminating all irrelevant considerations in the hiring of government workers o What resulted was a system of scientific management that could satisfy the demand for the elimination of patronage and for more efficient administration in governmentOverall the human relations model has been least influential in Canadian public administrationContemporary Developments Participatory Management goal was to go beyond the platitude of human relations theories and implement genuine worker participation in decision making in the workplaceMany different approaches exist under the broad heading of participatory management including Management by Objectives Organization Development and Total Quality Management
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