Theory of IR, Waltz

4 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 3398F/G
Professor
Richard Vande Wetering

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THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS – KENNETH WALTZ ANARCHIC ORDERS AND BALANCES OF POWER  The state among states conducts its affairs in the brooding shadow of violence – or live at the mercy of their military more vigorous neighbors  Among men as among states, anarchy or the absence of government is associated with the occurrence of violence  The use of force, or the constant fear of its use, are not sufficient grounds for distinguishing international from domestic affairs  No human order is proof against violence  Contact generates conflict and at times issues in violence. The difference between national and international politics lies not in the use of force but in the different modes of organization for doing something about it  Persons and institutions depend heavily on one another because of the different tasks they perform and the different goods they produce and exchange  Integration to describe the condition within nations and interdependence to describe the condition among them  In a self help system each of the units spend a portion of its effort, not in forwarding its own good, but in providing the means of protecting itself against others  Even the prospect of large absolute gains for both parties does not elicit their cooperation so long as each fears how the other will use its increased capabilities  Unit worry about their survival and the worry conditions their behaviour  The relative strength of firms chngesover time in ways that cannot be foreseen  Firms are constrained to strike a compromise between maximizing their profits and minimizing the danger of their own demise  Oligopolistic firms must be more concerned with relative strength than with absolute advantage  The larger a state’s imports and exports, the more it depends on others  In a self help system, considerations of security subordinate economic gain to political interest  Cars offer flexibility in scheduling and in choice of destination  The international interest must be served; and if that means anything at all, it means that national interests are subordinate to it  The possibility of effective action depends on the ability to provide necessary means  A macrotheory is a theory about the national economy built on supply, income and demand as system wide aggregates  A macrotheory of international potlics would show how the international system is moved y system-wide aggregates  A macrotheory of international politics would lack the practical implications of macroeconomic theory. National governments can manipulate system wide economic variables THE VIRTUES OF ANARCHY  Must rely on the means they can generate and the arrangements they can make for themselves  Risks may be avoided or lessened by moving from a situation of coordinate action to one of super and subordination  The greater power of the centre, the stronger the incentive for states to engage in a struggle to control it  The more influential the agency, the stronger the desire to control it becomes  Wars among states cannot settle questions of authority and right; they can only determine the allocation of gains and losses among contenders and settle for a time the question of who is the stronger  In politics force is said to be the ultima ratio  The possibility that conflicts among nations may lead to long and costly wars has similarly sobering effects ANARCHY AND HIERARCHY  Anarchy is seen as one end of a continuum whose other end is marked by the presence of a legitimate and competent government  Increasing the number of categories would bring the classification of societies closer to reality TWO  How can theory of international politics be constructed – first one must conceive of international politics as a bounded realm or domain; second, one must d
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