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Chapter 10

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Western University
Psychology 2060
Irene Cheung

Chapter 10- Leadership What is leadership 1. emergence of leaders 2. effectiveness of leadership Why leadership -effective leadership enhance group process / job performance organizational productivity and profitability problem when studying leadership: 1. judge effective leader based on success of organization charisma: ability to influence others simply by strengths of character , popular and influential personality trait romance of leadership phenomena: tendency attribute organizational success actions of one particular leader  leadership increased trust in leader, satisfaction leader, commitment to organization, turnover intent  behavioural outcomes organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) likely when formal supervisor is good leader  leadership associated with motivation, creativity  virtually every outcome variable in field of occupational health psychology related to organizational leadership History of Leadership Theories Great Man Theories: earliest , leaders born not made and emerge to suit needs of the day, gender issues were not well recognized Trait theories: physical/psychological characteristic differenetiated leaders from non-leaders or good leaders from poor leaders  leadership associated with height and intelligence  little evidence for universal traits that could predict leadership  abandoned by 1950, re emerged  Big Five: agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience o there are individual characteristics personality, intelligence, that predict both leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness o organizations had some control over leadership emergence and effectiveness Behavioural Theories: one could identify universal characteristics of leaders that predicted effective leadership  identify specific behaviours that characterized effective leaders  initiating structure: behaviours resulted in creation of clear guidelines and procedures  setting clear goals, scheduling, defining standards of performance  consideration: behaviours focused on people than on task  concern for welfare of others build respect and trust  measured by Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire(LBDQ) rate frequency leader displayed list of 40 behaviours  15 items consideration  10 scale were not scored  allowed: rate specific leader, their ideal leader, themselves as a leader Hypothesis 2 types of leadership behaviour 1. initiating structure would predict task performance while consideration would predict employee attitudes and satisfaction 2. most effective leadership style would involve high levels of both initiating structure and consideration Problems from this approach: 1. correlation between initiating structure and consideration was modest 2. sometimes two dimension negatively associated optimal leadership rarely occurred 3. behaviours are moderately to strongly correlated with attitudinal and more variables while initiating structure was associated with task and group performance Contingency theories/situational : notion that different leadership styles might be more effective under different conditions Fiedlers Contingency Theory: leaders who are task- motivated or relationship motivated o determined from least-preferred coworker scale leaders are asked to rate coworker they like least o rate on series of bipolar items ( unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5 friendly) o task motivated individuals use more harsh descriptors three aspects of situation: 1. quality of leader follower relationships 2. clarity of performance goals 3. formal authority / power relationships in workplace o characteristics can be used to rate situation along a dimension of favourableness o task motivated leaders most effective in extreme situations (favourable or unfavourable) o relationship motivated leaders most effective in moderately favourable situations Path goal theory: based on premise leaders role is : (a) to align goals of organization and followers (b) help followers achieve goals, help by clarifying means/ path to goal achievement o raising followers sense that they could accomplish goals and ensuring that followers valued goals o drew directly on expectancy theories of motivation Four leadership stles: 1. participative leadership: engaging followers in decision making and inviting feedback 2. supportive leadership: demonstrating concern for needs of followers 3. directive leadership: providing task structure clear goals and contingent feedback 4. achievement oriented leadership: setting high standards for performance and challenging followers to achieve these standards o effectiveness varies according to environmental, job, follower characteristics o difficult to test Substitutes for leadership theory: notion that two types of situational variables affect relationship between leadership and outcomes Neutralizers: block effects of leadershi, rendering leadership inconsequential Substitutes: make leadership a moot point by substituting for any potential effects of leadership Leader-Member Exchange ( LMX) Theory: most influential , relationship between leader and the follower rather than solely on the leaders behaviour o measure LMX o leaders and followers influence eachother o quality of leader-member relationship (mutual liking, loyalty, support, trust) important predicting outcomes o leaders and followers often disagree on relationship Charismatic Leadership Theory: belief among followers that their leaders had exceptional and unusual qualities that set them apart as a leader Transformational Leadership Theory: o transformational ,LAX, charismatic leadership most popular o 63% all leadership research in that period with transformational most o transactional leadership: based on notion of an exchange focus on what leader does in response to followers behaviour o transformational leadership: beyond level of transactions to result in higher levels of performance 3 forms of Transactional Leadership : 1. laissez fair leadership leader has no response to the behaviour of followers o avoids or denies responsibility & refuses to take any action in workplace o “ non leadership” 2. Management by exception: leaders take action only to correct employee mistakes and failure to meet standards o can be passive or active o active: looking for employee mistakes , micromangement constantly checking up on employees ensure properly o when mistakes detected management by exception take steps to punish followers o passive: laissez faire and management by exception, don’t actively monitor followers or look for mistakes, ignore followers until mistakes or errors are serious that they cant be ignored o laissez-faire and management by exception are negative transactions 3. contingent reward: practicing good management set clear goals for followers and provide immediate and contingent feedback based on follower behaviour o don’t ignore mistakes but neither do they focus solely on failure to meet standard : provide both positive and negative feedback o combination of laissez-faire and passive management by exception labeled passive leadership o passive leadership actually detracted from safety of workplace o contingent reward behaviour positively associated with follower satisfaction , motivation, individual and organization o contingent reward very positive form leadership closely associated with transformational leadership 4 forms of Transformational Leadership : 1. ideali
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