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Chapter 8

Human Sexuality ch.8.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2075

Chapter 8 Sexually transmitted infections  STI-related stigma: awareness that people are judged negatively for contracting and STI  STI-related shame: the negative feelings that people have about themselves as a result of receiving an STI diagnosis Chlamydia  Chlamydia: is an organism casing sexually transmitted infection; the symptoms in men are thin clear discharge and mild pain on urination; women are frequently asymptomatic o Asymptomatic- having no symptoms is very frequent (almost all in women and 50% in men)  Treatment o It is treated with azithromycin o If not treated in a women it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease: o PID: an infection and inflammation of the pelvic organs such as the fallopian tubes and the uterus  Prevention o There should be a vaccine in the next decade o High school student were provided with a self screening test, though may did not take it because they had o symptoms, even though they new that it was asymptomatic HPV  HPV: human papillomavirus the organism that causes genital warts  There are many different strands that often are asymptomatic and is not a reportable disease  Genital warts: a sexually transmitted infection causing warts on the gentials and cervical cancer o Whit cauliflower like and can be found most likely on the shaft of the penis, the urethral opening and the vulva  HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer  Diagnosis o Can be simply inspected by the warts or by abnormal cells on a pap test  Treatment o Chemicals such as podofilm or trichloroacetic can be applied directly to the warts, aldera can also be applied o Most strains of HPV go away on their own  Vaccine o Gardasil protects against four HPV types (combined cause 70% of cervical cancer) o Cervarix is the new one that also protects against these  These will not kill an existing virus o This is given free to girls in grade 8- though there still is some controversy, and if you were of age you can “catch up” Genital Herpes  Genital Herpes: is a sexually transmitted infection, the symptoms of which are small, painful bumps or blisters on the genitals  There are two strains of it: HSV-1 and HSV-2  Again, most people that have it are symptomatic, and don’t know they have it  Symptoms: o Small blisters on the genitals and are found on the vagina lips or the penis, these can pop and become very painful o Fever, headaches and painful urination can also occur o People are most infections when the have an outbreak of sores, but can still transmit the virus when there are none  Treatment o There is no cure, but valacyclovir and famir shorten outbreaks of the blisters  Long-term consequences o Can increase you chance of getting HIV- due to the opening of the blisters o The other serious risk is you can transfer the disease to a child (mother to infant)  Psychological aspects: coping with herpes o Can cause anxiety and frustration, make people feel that they must always abstain from sex HIV infection and AIDS  AIDS: (acquired immune deficiency syndrome): a sexually transmitted disease that destroys the body’s immune system to infection so that the person is susceptible to and may die from disease such as pneumonia or cancer  The virus that causes AIDS was discovered in 1984 and it is called HIV  An epidemic? o 2008, 21,300 people reported to have AIDS in Canada, 63% of them died from it – only the tip of the iceberg, at the end of the year 67,442 people had been diagnosed with AIDS o In 2008 alone, over 2 million people world wide died from AIDS  Transmission o Spread four ways: by sexual intercourse, mother to infant, drug use (contaminated syringe) and blood o The highest account for the virus was men having sex with men (56%) o Cumulative risk: the likelihood of contracting an STI after repeated unprotected exposure o Circumcision reduce risk by up to 60% and condoms up to 95%  The virus o Is a retrovirus- only can reproduce within living host cells o Particularly invades whit blood cells called CD4+ T cells  The disease o Four classes: primary infection, asymptomatic infection, progressive infection, AIDS-defining opportunistic infection  Diagnosis o Screened blood tests will tell if you are HIV positive o ELISA is a very sensitive test and is very accurate o After, if the person is positive from ^ the person receive the western blot method (much more expensive, so only done if you test +) o There is a take home HIV test in the states but not in Canada- highly controversial  Treatment o AZT:I s a drug used to treat HIV-infected people o Can not get rid of the disease but can stop it from multiplying o DDI: slow the progression of the disease o People take the drug cocktail called HAART- after this is taken for a year, HIV I almost undetectable -2006 o This is making it manageable for people to live with the disease, but is not a complete cure  Women children ethnic minorities and AIDS o The number of women contracting the virus is increasing o The number of babies being born with it is decreasing, mothers treated with AZT can reduce the chance of giving it to there child to only 5% o Very serve among aboriginals  Psychological considerations o Most patients experience the typical feelings of depression, denial anger etc. o Some become very instable and can lose there job and have a very negative outlook on life o Some said that there sex life was non existent, and maybe would return o Cognitive behavioural therapy seems to help people have a more + view on life  Recent progress o Found that some people have a strong resistance (caused by a mutation in there genes) hoping this will lead to gene therapy o Microbes may be available in ointment form to put on the penis or vagina o The best way is to invade peo
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