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Chapter 14

Sexual Orientation - Chapter 14.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2075
Professor
William Fisher

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Human Sexuality Midterm 2 Sexual Orientation - Chapter 14 Alan Turing: - created a code-breaking machine for the allies during ww2 - made an officer of the Order of the British Empire for code-breaking work - in 1952 Turing was found guilty of gross indeceny for having a homosexual relationship, an illegal act at the time, and subjected to chemical castration. - Committed suicide two years later New York Stonewall Riots: 1969 - “Routine” police raid on june 28, 1969 - Gay rights movement Toronto Bath House Raidth 1981 - 11pm on feb 5 , 1981, raidied four bathhouses: romans 2 health and recreation spa, Richmond street health emporium, club baths and the barracks - owners were charged with keeping a common bawdy-house and 286 occupants were arrested By 2013… - Canadian law o Permits gay marriage o Permits gay parents to adopt o Outlaws discrimination in work or housing o Requires recognition of same sex partners for pension rights, acceptance of gays in military o Publicly gay MPs, teachers, television personalities Case 1: girl was a lesbian - message to take home is not to assume sexuality of people Case 2:Assuming son was gay because he plays dolls with girls - get supportive counseling to help the family adapt and cope is more helpful than interventions to change sexual orientation Case 3: Guy cheats on his wife with another guy - same sex behaviour may or may not imply same sex orientation - could have both medical and psychosocial implications however Case 4:gay guy had drunk unprotected sex and is requesting anAIDs test - concerned about a stigma around homosexuality so they don’t get tested Case 5: woman concerned about coming out with her homosexuality - coming out can be a struggle What is Sexual Orientation? - a function of sexual behaviour? - same sex, both sexes, opposite sex - What if same, both, opposite sex activity is not a matter of sexual orientation but a function of other factors: survival sex (get a meal etc. to survive), prisoner, prostitute Afunction of sexual attraction? - same sex, both sexes, opposite sex? Human Sexuality Midterm 2 - Sexual and romantic attraction pattern Sexual Orientation - Straight or gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT) – transgender is really more of an identity - Is it “sexual preference” or “sexual orientation”? o “morally laden choice” or “born that way”?  any active decision to make? “I’d prefer to be gay”  Not a birth defect - MSM, MSW (men who have sex with men, men who have sex with women) - Transsexual, Transgender: an individual whose internal sense of gender does not match their body - Gender role: socially assigned sex-linked characteristics and behaviour of an individual; could be masculine, feminine, androgynous - Gender identity: internal sense of maleness or femaleness - New Terms: Queer, Pansexual: emerging definition of gender role and sexual attraction nonconformity Kinsey Scale: - Sexual experience and attraction o 0: exclusively heterosexual o 1: mostly heterosexual with incidental homosexual o 2: Heterosexual with substantial homosexual o 3: Equal heterosexual and homosexual o 4: homosexual with substantial heterosexual o 5: Homosexual with incidental heterosexual o 6: exclusively homosexual - Problem: refers only to behavior and not to attraction Commonness of Sexual Orientation Variations - Roughly 2 percent of men and roughly 1 percent of women identify as homosexual (USA, 1994) Origins of Homosexual Orientation - Homosexual men: psychoanalytic explanations o Children inherently bisexual o Boys’Oedipus complex: boy loves mother, fears father for castration, identifies with father, masculinizes, in order to get what dad gets – women o Weak father, dominant mother; father is not credible Oedipal competitor, no identification, masculinization; boy identifies with powerful mother, gets what she gets – men o Castration anxiety: girls almost cost me my penis, stick to men - Homosexual women: psychoanalytic explanations o Girls’penis envy: men cost me my penis I’m going to stick with women o No evidence of any life experience that encourages the development of homosexual orientation  If you grow up in a one parent family versus a two parent family Human Sexuality Midterm 2 o No Basis for parental guilt: “what did I do wrong?” - No evidence to support ”gay parents produce homosexual or lesbian orientation in children” - Richard green and others: children raised by gay parents are not likely to develop into gay adults - Hormonal factors: organizing or activating effects? - Adrenogenital syndrome females o Organizing effect? o Little evidence of homosexual female orientation in adult adrenogenital females - Androgens administrated to male homosexuals o Activating effect o Made them horny, not heterosexual - Birth order regularities in gay men o Late birth order and more older brothers o Antibody response to H-Y antigen involved in prenatal sexual differentiation? - Left-handedness and 2d:4d ratio differences o Suggestive of prenatal influences o May be more common in gay men - Genetics of homosexual orientation (Baily & Pilliard, Arch Gen Psy, 1991; Bailey et al., Arch Gen Psy, 1993) o Monozygotic twins where one twin was homosexual male (N=56): 52% concordance o Dizygotic twins where one twin was homosexual male (N=54): 22% concordance o Adoptive brothers of homosexual males: 11% concordance o Monozygotic twins where one twin was homosexual female (N=71): 48% concordance o Dizygotic twins where one twin was homosexual female (N=37): 16% concordance o Adoptive sisters of homosexual females: 6% concordance - Genetics of homosexual orientation (Hamer et al, 1993; Bailey & pilliard, 1995) o Gene of X chromosome o Not replicated - Implications of findings for genetics of homosexual orientation? o Greater understanding and acceptance (not a moral choice or preference) o Biologically based hostility (“Oh, it’s a birth defect;” prenatal diagnosis) - Most (75%) identified at a young age - Most noted same-sex attraction first o Then identified to self as gay o Then had same sex sexual contact o Then came out to others Legal Status of GlBT individuals in Canada Human Sexuality Midterm 2 - Until 1969, same sex sexual activity, as well as contraception (Unless “for the public good”, were illegal in Canada - In 1996, parliament enacted “human rights act” to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation - GLBT individuals cannot be fired, refused housing, or adoption of children on basis of sexual orientation - “Modernization of BenefitsAct” ensures same benefits to same sex and opposite sex couple - Same sex legal in 2005 - Gallup polls 2004 o 53 percent Canadians favour gay marriage o 59% americans favour banning it Case Scenarios: - The state of new jersey has a law banning medical officials from trying to reorient homosexual people o Case going on right now of people suing the state to be able to reorient their son - CAMH: o Conducts a comprehensive assessment, followed by treatment recommendations for children and adolescents age 2 to 18 when there is concern about a child’s gender identity development; Sexual Orientation and Mental Health - Some epidemiological regularities, but always remember, you are dealing with an individual, not a population - Epidemiological observations, however, can create sensitivity to sexual orientation related mental health issues that might exist - Critical Question:Are mental and physical health issues related to sexual orientation or to minority group status and prejudice? o Or related to minority stress? o Is it because it’s a stigmatized, abused, niche in which people live? - American PsychiatricAssociation delisted homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis in 1973 - World health organization in 1993 - China in 2001 - Original research: gays and lesbians in therapy compared to heterosexuals not in therapy: plenty of differences - Criticized since gays and lesbians sampled were by definition experiencing mental health problems - Does not establish that homosexual orientation per se causes or is related to mental health problems - Later research: gays and lesbians not in therapy compared to heterosexuals not in therapy: no differences! - Criticized since gays and lesbians sampled were by definition mentally healthy - Still indicates that homosexual orientation per se is not diagnostic of mental health problems, even given considerable social prejudice Human Sexuality Midterm 2 - Minority Stress Hypothesis (Meyer, Psy Bull, 2003): o GLB persons are stigmatized o GLB persons experience prejudiced life events (being rejected by family, fired, attacked physically) o GLB persons and social networks are also resilient o Would not be surprising to find elevated levels of mental health difficulties in GLB individuals in carefully conducted population studies, due to minority stress, not due to sexual orientation per se Sexual Orientation and Physical Health - Severe health risk of GLB persons: underutilization of the health care system due to fear of prejudicial treatment - Many of most GLB patients do not disclose and most physicians do not assess sexual orientation or sexual behaviour - Barriers to health care utilization by GLB o Assumed heterosexuality o Fear of disclosure o Fear of rejection o Assumed GLB sexual behavior and lifestyle  Gay men: tons of partners  Gay women: no male partners Aspects of Sexual Orientation and Related physical and mental health concerns - Sexual behaviour o HIV/AIDS o Hepatitis A,B o Enteritis o HPV o Other STI o Anal Cancer o Contraception o Nulliparity o Breast Cancer - Cultural Factors o Socializing at bars, alcohol, tobacco, drugs  Drug use, alcohol dependence o Body image issues o Ageing issues o Marriage, divorce, custody, adoption - Disclosure o Depression, anxiety, suicidality o Conflict with family of origin o Economic consequences o Physical consequences - Prejudice discrimination o Provider bias or insensitivity Human Sexuality Midterm 2 o Harassment in Personal, professional life o Pathologizing behavior o Violence against GLBT - Concealment o Reluctance to seek medical care o Delayed treatment o Incomplete history (concealed risk, concealed social support) CHAPTER NOTES History: - Gay pride parade held in the anniversary of first time they stood up for gay rights in 1969 o At “Stonewall” – gay bar in New york - Gay liberation in Canada o First time - Vancouver in 1970 o 8 months later 200 protesters on Parliament Hill demanding equal rights o 1981 – 3000 people rally in Toronto to protest the arrest of 300 men at gay bathhouses Gender identity: the psychological sense of maleness or femaleness Sexual Identity: one’s self-label or self-identification as heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or asexual. Tearoom trade – heterosexual married men who occasionally stop off at public restrooms to engage in oral sex with other men Sexual Orientation: whom we are emotionally, romantically, and sexually attracted to - sexual behaviour may not match this Pansexual – individuals who are open to a relationship of any sex, gender, or gender identity – men, women, transgender, and intersex individuals CCHS (Canadian Community Health Survey) - adults aged 18 to 59 - asked their sexual identity: men – 1.4% homosexual 0.7% bisexual o women – 0.8% homosexual, 0.9% bisexual According to NSFG – about 2% of men and 1% of women engage exclusively in same-sex sexual behaviour with a gay sexual identity – about 10% of both m/w have had at least 1 same-sex sexual experience in adulthood – about 4 percent of bo
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