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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Intelligence Quotient, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Army Beta


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
10

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Chapter Ten: Intelligence
Intelligence: The ability to acquire knowledge, think/reason efficiently, and adapt to enviros
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability
Believed mental abilities were inherited (measured mental abilities to prove)
Alfred Binet
Interested in solving a problem unlike Galton who was interested in supporting a theory
Why were certain children able to benefit from schools unlike others?
Two assumptions about intelligence:
1. Mental abilities develop with age
2. The rate people learn is a characteristic of a person and is constant over time
Mental Age: your mental ability compared to the average of certain ages
o Intelligence Quotient (IQ): created by Stern; ratio of mental age to chronological
o Noadas, it’s ased o pefoae elatie to people of same age
Binet’s Legacy
Stanford prof, Terman created Stanford-Binet test to create a single IQ score
Army Alpha: verbal test used to screen large numbers of Army recruits for smartness
Army Beta: fo those ho ould’t ead, it as oe visual/non-verbal
The Nature of Intelligence
Psychometric Approach: measures the abilities underlying differences in test performance
Cognitive Processes Approach: the specific thought processes that underlie those mental
competencies
Psychometric Approach
Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests
Factor Analysis: reduces large amounts of measures to a small number of clusters/factors
G Factor: general intelligence; main influence on mental ability - Spearman
- Considered the core of intelligence (predicts academic/job performance)
Primary Mental Abilities: seven distinct abilities that determine mental ability - Thurstone
Crystallized intelligence (gc): ability to apply previous knowledge to current problems
- Depends on previous learning, practice, and uses long-term memory
- Increases with age
Fluid Intelligence (gf): ability to solve problems without previous experience
- Requires the ability to think logically, reason abstractly, and use of short-term memory
- Begin with fluid then transition to crystallized throughout our life
- Decreases with age
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis
Three Levels of Mental Skills
1. General 2. Broad 3. Narrow
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