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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Evoked Potential, Electroencephalography, Internal Consistency


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
10

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Intelligence
Chapter 10 Lecture Notes
Intelligence is….
o A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to:
Acquire knowledge
Think and reason effectively
Deal adaptively with the environment
The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence
o Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests
o The g factor
Intelligence performance governed by:
1. General intelligence
2. Specific abilities
o Thurstone’s primary abilities
Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities
Theories
o Spearman’s factor- a theory of general intelligence termed g
o G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does
o A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading
comprehension, has a wide vocabulary, ect
o Thus g or general intelligence, is a type of mental energy which allows one
to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasks
o In addition to g, Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities
termed s
o S is the mental energy specific to a particular task
o Therefore, if you are good at math it is a combination of g and s
o S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than
others)
o Thurstone’s (1938) primary mental abilities
o Seven primary mental abilities
1. Spatial visualization
2. Perceptual speed
3. Numerical
4. Verbal meaning
5. Memory
6. Word fluency
7. Reasoning
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o Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another
o i.e. a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning
o although more expansive than Spearman’s theory, it is not incompatible
with it
o task analyses led Thurstone to believe these seven abilities were required
o many if not most activities require more than one primary ability
o e.g. reading- requires- verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and
reasoning
o Guilford’s structure of intent
o recall spearman’s g and s
o Thurstone’s 7 primary mental abilities
o Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors
o 3 basics:
operations- act of thinking
contents- terms of thinking- words, symbols
products- ideas we come up with
o within each basic category there are several sub factors
operations are composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking,
convergent thinking and evaluation
contents are composed of figural, symbolic, semantic and
behavioral
products ae composed of implications, transformations, systems,
relations, classes and units
o Guilford’s model is conceived of as a three dimensional matrix
o He postulates that at least one sub-factor from each category is present/
necessary to perform a task
o E.g. reading involves semantics (contents), cognitive, memory, evaluation
(operations) and relations, implications (products)
o Burt-Vernon theory of intelligence is the hierarchical theory
o Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as
independent but rather certain abilities are nested within others
o
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o Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
o
o Jensen’s level 1 and level II theory
o Arthur Jensen argued that existing theories were overly complex
o He proposed that all tasks could be measured based upon the degree to
which they required level 1 and level II abilities
o Level 1 is composed of simple rote memory
o No intentional or conscious transformation of input prior to output (e.g.
serial recall)
o Level II is composes of complex mental abilities
o Input requires conscious transformation prior to output (e.g. recall list in
categories)
o In this approach, intelligence would be measured on the basis of the
types of tasks completed
o The more tasks completed correctly requiring complex abilities, the higher
a person’s abilities would be rated
Assessment of Intelligence
o Classical assessment
o Psychometric approach
o These include Stanford Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes
o Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children
in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial
education
Analytical
intelligence
Practical
intelligence
Creative
intelligence
Metacomponents
Plan and regulate
Task behaviour
Performance
components
Execute strategies
specified by
metacomponents
Knowledge -
Acquisition
components
Encode and store
information
Underlying Cognitive
Processes
Types of Intellectual
Competence
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