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Chapter 14

Psychology 1000 Chapter 14: psych 1000 chapter 14

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Nick Skinner

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- Personality: refers to a distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, motives, and emotions
that characterizes an individual over time and across different situations
- Trait: a characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking or feeling
- Psychoanalysis: a theory of personality and method of psychotherapy development by Sigmund Freud;
it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
- Psychodynamic theories: theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious
energy dynamics within the individual
Freud and Psychoanalysis:
- Freud structured a theory on personality
- In his theory, personality consists of three major systems: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO. Any action we take or
problem we have results from the interaction and degree of balance among these systems.
- ID: This is present at birth and is the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy,
particularly sexual and aggressive instincts. The ID contains two instincts: the life, sexual instincts
(fuelled by psychic energy called the libido) and the death or aggressive instincts. Someone who is too
controlled by the ID is governed by impulse and selfish desires.
- Libido: the psychic energy that Fuels the life or sexual instincts of the ID
- EGO: the second system that occurs and this is a referee between the needs of instinct and the
demands of society. The EGO is part of personality that represents reason, good sense and rational self-
control. Freud said it is both conscious and unconscious and it represents "reasons and good sense".
Someone who has a weak EGO is unable to balance personal needs and wishes with social duties and
realistic limitations.
- SUPEREGO: the last system of personality to develop is the voice of conscience representation morality
and parental authority. The superego is partly conscious and largely unconscious. Someone who is too
controlled by the SUPEREGO is rigid, moralistic and bossy.
Defense Mechanisms: methods used by the EGO to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening
thoughts from entering consciousness. Deny and distorts reality and protect us from conflict and
- Freud identified five of the primary defenses:
1. repression: occurs when a threatening idea, memory or emotion is blocked from consciousness.
2. projection: occurs when a persons own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then
attributed to someone else
3. displacement: occurs when people direct their emotions toward things, animals or other people that
are not the real object of their feelings
4. regression: occurs when a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development
5. denial: occurs when people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening such as
mistreated by partner; that they have a problem such as drinking to much or that they are feeling a
forbidden emotion such as anger
The development of personality
- Psychosexual stages: In Freud's theory, the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child
matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic (Oedipal), latency and genital.
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