Curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness are driving forces behind scientific inquiry. Gathering evidence: steps in the scientific process (figure 2. 1 page 39) Science involves a continuous interplay between observing and explaining events. Why did no one help: formulate hypothesis. A tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon scientists gather clues and logically analyze them. Helping decreases as the perceived number of bystanders increases; the hypothesis is supported (if hypothesis is not supported, revise it: further research and theory building. Hindsight understanding: after-the-fact; problem is that related past events can be explained in many creative, reasonable, and sometimes contradictory ways. Prediction, control, and theory building scientists prefer understand the causes of behavior and make predictions in a controlled setting; good theories generate an integrated network of predictions. Theory incorporates existing facts and observations within a single broad framework. Theory is testable; generates new hypotheses and predictions. Predictions made by the theory are supported by the findings of new research.