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Chapter 1

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Elizabeth Loftus, Tabula Rasa, Albert Bandura

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Terry Biggs

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Psychology- Chapter 1
Behavioral Perspective
focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions
behaviour is jointly determined by habit learned from previous life experiences and by stimuli
in our immediate environment
roots in philosophical school of British empiricism
John Locke- at birth, the human mind is a tabula rasa, a “black slate” upon which experiences
are written
Iva Pavlov- learning occurs when events are associated with each other
Edward Thorndike- law of effect, responses followed by satisfying consequences bcome more
likely to recur, those followed the unsatisfying consequences are less likely to recur
a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning
John B. Watson led the new movement
argued proper subject matter of psychology was observable behaviour
sought to discover laws that govern learning
B.F. Skinner- “No account of what is happening inside the human body, no matter how
complete, will explain the origins of human behaviour”, “A person does not act upon the world,
the world acts upon him”
believed that through social engineering society could harness the power of the environment to
change behaviour in beneficial ways
his approach- radical behaviourism
behaviour modification- aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive
behaviours by manipulating environment, still used today
radical behaviourism influence waned after 1970s, interest in mental processes expanded
Cognitive Behaviourism
attention, memory could be rigorously studied
learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving us the information we
need to behave effectively
Albert Bandura- environment does not automatically “stamp in” or “stamp out” behaviours
Humanistic Perspective: Self-Actualization and Positive Pyschology
humanistic perspective emphasized free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning
in one’s existence
rejected psychodynamic concepts of humans being controlled by unconscious forces
Abraham Maslow- proposed that each of us has inborn force toward self-actualization
when humans develop in supportive environment, the positive inner nature of a person emerges
misery occurs when environments frustrate our innate tendencies
emphasized importance of personal choice, responsibility, personality growth and positive
feelings of self-worth
belongingness- basic human need for social acceptance and companionship
humanistic concepts stimulated research on self-esteem and self-concept
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