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Chapter 1

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Margaret Mead, Monism, Sociobiology

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Leslie Janes

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Psychology Chapter 1: The Science of Behavior 10/07/2014
The Nature of Psychology:
oPsychology – is the scientific study of behavior and the mind
Behaviors – we can directly observe
Mind – internal states
oBasic Research – Knowledge purely gained for its own sake. Describe how
people behave and to identify factors that influence it.
oApplied Research – knowledge gained to solve specific practical problems 
uses principles discovered via basic research to solve practical problems
Goals of Psychology: DEuPIc
Describe how people and animals behave
Explain and Understand the causes of the behavior
Predict how people and animals behave under certain conditions
Influence or Control the behavior through knowledge and control of causes
6 Different perspectives; PBS and HBC
Psychodynamic – unconscious forces motivating behavior
Behavioral – role of external environmental on our action
Sociocultural – culture and behavior relate
Humanistic – self-actualization and free will
Biological – physical side of human nature, brain and genes
Cognitive – thought process
oClinical Psychology – is the study and treatment od mental disorders
Diagnose people with psychological problems in clinics, hospitals, and private practice

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oCognitive Psychology – specializes in the study of mental processes, especially from a model
that views the mind as an information processor
Examine topics such as consciousness, attention, memory, decision making, and problem
oBiopsychology/neuroscience – focuses on the biological underpinnings of behavior
Examine how the brain processes, genes and hormones influence our actions, thoughts and
Some seek to explain how evolution has shaped our psychological capacities
oDevelopmental Psychology – examines human physical, psychological and social
development across the lifespan
Some explore the developmental world of infants,
oExperimental Psychology – focuses on such basic processes as learning, sensory systems,
perception, and motivational states
Often involves nonhuman animals
oIndustrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology - examines people’s behaviors in the work
Study leadership, teamwork, and factors that influence and employees’ job satisfaction, work
motivation, and performance
oPersonality Psychology – focuses on the study of human personality
Study how different personality traits are related to one another
oSocial Psychology – Examines people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior pertaining to the social
world: the world of other people
Study how people influence each other, behave in groups and form impressions and attitudes
The Biological Perspective
Focuses on the physical side of human nature
Mind-body dualism: The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern
the body
No amount of research done on the body could explain the mind
View widely held by the ancient Greeks

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Monism: the belief that the mind and body are one, and mental events are a product of physical events
MODERN VIEW held by most scientists
Discovery of Brain-Behavior Relations
Luigi Galvani – defied the prior belief that the soul caused bodily movements, when he discovered that
the severed leg of a frog moved with electrical current applied to it
Karl Lashley – damaged specific regions of brain and studied effects on learning and memory abilities
in animals trained to run through mazes
Evolution and Behavior
Darwin’s theory of natural selection showed that inheritable characteristics that increase the likelihood of
survival will be maintained – proposed that apes and humans rose form the same ancestory
Evolutionary Psychology focuses on the role of evolution in development of human behavior
Sociobiology explains that complex social behaviors are built into human species as products of evolution
Role of culture in behavior
Similarities and differences between cultures and people
Behavior Genetics –
Study of how behavioral tendencies are influenced by genetic factors
Animals can be bred for physical traits, but also for behavioral traits
Identical twins, with identical genetic makeup, are very similar in behavior compared to fraternal twins
even when grown up in different homes
The Cognitive Perspective
Views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by through and
planning, what sets humans apart is that we have mental capabilities
How mental processes influence our motives, emotions and behavior
Analysis of the mind in terms of basic elements
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