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Chapter 8

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Interference Theory, Encoding Specificity Principle, Decay Theory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Chapter
8

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CHAPTER EIGHT: MEMORY
Memory: the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information
Memory as information processing:
Think of the mind as a computer which encodes, stores, and retrieves info
-Encoding: translating stimulus into neural code that the brain can process
Automatic processing – encoding that occurs w/o intention
and requires minimal attention
E.g. Your routine this morning
Effortful processing – encoding that is initiated intentionally
and requires conscious attention
E.g. Making study notes
-Storage: involves retaining information over time
-Retrieval: pull the info out of storage when it is needed
-3 component model (get picture)
Sensory Memory: holding incoming sensory info just long enough for it to be recognized
-Sensory registry: initial info processors
-Iconic store: visual sensory registry
-Echoic store: auditory “
Short term/Working Memory:
oSmall portion of sensory memory enters this part which holds info we are
conscious of
-Memory codes: forming a mental image, coding by sound (phonological), focusing
on meaning (semantic), patterns of movement (motor)
oEx: visually represent a phone number in your mind
oVisual encoding - form a mental image or representation (ex. Mental image
of UWO campus)
oPhonological encoding - code by sound (ex. Learning the melody of new
song)
oSemantic encoding – focus on the meaning of a stimulus (ex. Learning new
psych terms for the exam- focusing on the meaning)
oMotor encoding – code patterns of movement (ex. Learning to play sports or
a new dance step)
o
-Capacity and duration
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oShort term memory can only hold a limited amount of info at a time (5-9
items or bundles)
oChunking: combing items into larger units can help with short term memory
oShort term memory lasts roughly 20s
oMaintenance rehearsal: repetition of info
oElaborative rehearsal: focusing on meaning of info and relating it to other
things we know
Techniques that aid Memory:
-Rehearsal:
oDefinition: repeating items over and over as a deliberate means to remember
them
oMaintenance Rehearsal- maintains info in short-term memory
oRepeat a phone number until you’ve dialed it
oElaborative Rehearsal- focus on the meaning repeating to concepts and
examples we already know. More successful for transfer of information into
long-term memory for more permanent storage
-Mnemonics: acronyms, rhymes, phrases, personal meaning
oThe Method of Loci; dates back to ancient Greece
oPeg-word Techniques; taking adv. Of pre-existing associations “this old man..
he played one..”
Working memory (Baddeley, 1998): one model proposed separates working memory
into 4 sections
Auditory working memory: ex. When you repeat a phone number to remember
it (phonological loop)
Visual spatial working memory: allows us to temporarily store and manipulate
images and spatial information (mental map of destination route)
Episodic buffer: provides a temporary storage space where long term memory
auditory, and spatial working memory can be integrated and be made available for
conscious awareness
Central executive: directs and allocates how much attention should be given
auditory and imagery rehearsals, calls upon long term memory and integrated
input.
Miller: the capacity of short term memory is 7, +/- 2, items of information
Long term memory: vast lib. Of more durable stored memories
-Long term memory seems to be functionally unlimited
-Serial position effect; recall is influenced by a words position in a series of terms
oPrimary effect: remembering early words. We can quickly rehearse these
words and transfer it to long term
oRecency effect: superior recall of more recent words. We have no benefit of
not having these terms bumped out
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Encoding: entering info
-Effortful and automatic processing
oEffortful processing: encoding requiring conscious attention (taking notes in
class)
oAutomatic processing: encoding requiring minimal attention (reading and
identifying words)
Depth of Processing
Shallow processing
Structural physical features
Deeper processing
phonetic (sound)
Deepest processing
meaning
Deeper the processing the better it will be remembered
Levels of Processing: when is deeper is better
-POTATO “is the word capital letters?”- structural encoding: noticing how words
look
-Horse “does word rhyme with course?”- phonological encoding: sounding out the
word
-TABLE “does the word fit the sentence: the man peeled the___?”- sematic encoding:
must pay attention to what the word actually means
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