Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
PSYCH (5,000)
PSYCH 1000 (1,000)
Chapter 1

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener, Psychology Today


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Shelley Cross- Mellor
Chapter
1

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Psychology Chapter 1 September 20, 2011
Chapter 1 The Science of Behaviour
The Nature of Psychology
o Scientific study of behaviour and mind
Behaviour actions and responses that we observe directly
Mind internal states and processes (feelings, thoughts) that we can’t see
o Psychologist does not necessarily mean therapist
o Different fields in psychology
Clinical Psychology
Most psychologists are this type
Study and treatment of mental disorders
Cognitive Psychology
Looks at mental processes
Views mind as information processor
Examine consciousness, attention, memory, decision making/problem
solving
o Psycholinguistics: use the jumbled word exercise
Biopsychology
Biological reasons behind behaviour
How genes, hormones, and brain processes affect our behaviour
How has evolution shaped our capabilities?
Developmental Psychology
Examines our development over our lifespan
Example: emotional world of infants, different parenting styles affect
children
Experimental Psychology
Examines basic processes like learning, perception, senses, and
motivation
Use non-human animals for experiments
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
Behaviour in work place
How work environment affects motivation and performance
Help employers find best employees from applicants
Design tests to evaluate employee performance
Personality Psychology
Studies human personality
How do different traits relate to one another?
Develop tests to measure personalities
Social Psychology
Examine thoughts, feelings, and general behaviour that associates with
social aspect of life
How do people influence one another?
Study relationships
o Different fields often overlap with one another
Decision making is covered in all fields
o Psychology research spans the all aspects of behaviour

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Psychology’s Scientific Approach
o Some psychologist’s take a scientific approach to behaviour
Science gathers empirical evidence to solve problems
Empirical evidence is gained through experience and observation
Systematic means performed against a set of rules
o Want findings to be as accurate as possible
o Many things provide us with information about human nature
o Often take mental shortcuts
o Fail to consider alternative explanations as to why we behaved in such a way
o Many biases around the world
o Psychologist use science to make concrete steps to minimize biases and inaccurate
conclusions
o Psychologists use casual observation and instruments to come to conclusions
o Psychologists compare observations when many observe one group of people
o Use statistics to analyze data
o Use very highly controlled experiment conditions
o Psychologists publish findings to enable scientists to challenge their findings
o New studies cause old experiments to be modified
o Poorly executed studies produce inaccurate information which leads to invalid
conclusions
o Science represents how the world operates
Thinking Critically About Behaviour
o Behaviour is complex, poses complicated challenges
o Take an active role in understanding world, rather than absorb information
Evaluate validity
o Misconceptions can lead to increasingly misguided views of the world and how it
operates
o People accept misconceptions
Spend money on fortune tellers and other such people that read personalities
These are dressed up to make people believe them, outward appeal
Psychology’s Goals
o Describe how people and other animals behave
o Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours
May be able to predict future of when these behaviours will occur
o Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
o Influence/control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance
human welfare
Control causes = control behaviour
Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science
o Goals of basic research: describe how people behave, identify factors that influence that
particular behaviour
o Goals of applied research: solve practical problems with the use of discovered principles
Psychology’s Broad Scope: A Simple Framework
o Behaviour is examined at:
Biological level: brain processes, genetics
Psychological level: thoughts, feelings
Environmental level: past and current physical and social environments
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version