Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Naturalistic Observation, Social Desirability Bias, List Of Fables Characters

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Chapter 2: Research study
- Hindsight approach trying to understand after the fact it has happened
- Scientist don’t like hindsight understanding because they want to predict the
outcomes.
Scientific Method
1. Identify or Observe
2. Hypothesis make a prediction
3. Test your hypothesis by doing research
4. Observe your results
5. Revise do further research
6. Make a possible theory or make a new hypothesis
Theory is a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are
related to one another.
- Good theories…
- Are testable
- Falisifiable
- Predictions supported by new research
- Confirms to the “Law of Parsimony”
Law of Parsimony two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena
equally well, the SIMPLER theory is thus the PREFERRED ONE.
Variable any change in characteristic or factor that can vary. Eg: sex, gender, height,
age, GPA.
Study settings, where??
Field study
-behaviour is observed where it occurs
disadvantages not a controlled environment, bias view
Lab Study
- behavior observed in a controlled environment
- you can vary certain situation to get different outcomes
Data collection
1. Self report asks people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings,
experiences.
- it can be done by questionnaires or surveys
- Disadvantages some ppl might exaggerate a situation and some ppl might tough
it out.
- Distorted by social desirability
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