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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

Psych 2010A Chapter 1 - Introduction • cognition: the acquisition of knowledge • when studying cognition, we study the pattern recognition, attention, memory, visual imagery, language, problem solving, and decision making • cognitive psychology: all the processes whereby sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used • also called human information processing • transformation of information (sensory input) means that “thinking” is not a passive, but an active process • involves reduction and elaboration of information • memory: the storage and recall of information • storage of information does not guarantee recovery of information • i.e. “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon • information must be put into good use (practised) in order to be recovered • there are stages involved when processing information and they are arranged in temporal order (do not forget that information flows in both directions) sensory store *filter* pattern recognition “selection” STM LTM **our responses come out of the STM ** input is put into the sensory store • sensory store: hold unanalyzed sensory information for a fraction of a second • a sensory store exists for each one of the senses • the sensory store extends the amount of time that a person has to recognize the pattern • usually holds things for 250msec (one fourth of a second), which is much longer than the 5msec exposure • pattern recognition: the stage of perception in which a stimulus is identified • information that wasnʼt lost in the sensory store travels to the pattern recognition stage for it to be identified • some theorists claim that we can only recognize one pattern at a time and some say that simultaneous patterns can be recognized, but only some will be remembered, whereas the others are forgotten • the ones that are remembered are filtered by our attention - attention acts as a filter • but since both of these theories are equally dominant, attention is represented in either the filter stage or the selection stage. • short-term memory: memory that has limited capacity and lasts for about 30 seconds unless practised. (i.e. remembering a telephone number) • limited in capacity (how much info it can hold) and duration (how long can it hold the info for) • LTM has neither of the two limitations • long-term memor
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