Psychology 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Long Term Ecological Research Network, Cognitive Psychology, Psych

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Published on 18 Nov 2011
Western University
Psychology 2010A/B
of 2
Psych 2010A
Chapter 1 - Introduction
cognition: the acquisition of knowledge
when studying cognition, we study the pattern recognition, attention, memory, visual
imagery, language, problem solving, and decision making
cognitive psychology: all the processes whereby sensory input is transformed,
reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used
also called human information processing
transformation of information (sensory input) means that “thinking” is not a passive,
but an active process
involves reduction and elaboration of information
memory: the storage and recall of information
storage of information does not guarantee recovery of information
i.e. “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon
information must be put into good use (practised) in order to be recovered
there are stages involved when processing information and they are arranged in
temporal order (do not forget that information flows in both directions)
sensory store <--> *filter* <--> pattern recognition <--> “selection” <--> STM <--> LTM
**our responses come out of the STM
** input is put into the sensory store
sensory store: hold unanalyzed sensory information for a fraction of a second
a sensory store exists for each one of the senses
the sensory store extends the amount of time that a person has to recognize the
usually holds things for 250msec (one fourth of a second), which is much longer
than the 5msec exposure
pattern recognition: the stage of perception in which a stimulus is identified
information that wasnʼt lost in the sensory store travels to the pattern recognition
stage for it to be identified
some theorists claim that we can only recognize one pattern at a time and some
say that simultaneous patterns can be recognized, but only some will be
remembered, whereas the others are forgotten
the ones that are remembered are filtered by our attention - attention acts as a
but since both of these theories are equally dominant, attention is represented
in either the filter stage or the selection stage.
short-term memory: memory that has limited capacity and lasts for about 30 seconds
unless practised. (i.e. remembering a telephone number)
limited in capacity (how much info it can hold) and duration (how long can it hold
the info for)
LTM has neither of the two limitations
long-term memory: can hold an unlimited amount of information, lasts from minutes to
an entire lifetime
flow of information from sensory store to LTM is bottom-up processing
flow of information from LTM to sensory store is top-down processing
Stimulus Response Approach: the approach that emphasizes the association
between a stimulus and a response, without identifying the mental operations that
produced the response.
Information Processing Approach: how a person transforms information between
the stimulus and the response
Broadbentʼs filter model
a filter model based on selective listening tasks
Broadbent proposed that many sensory inputs can enter the sensory store, but
only one of these inputs can continue on to the pattern recognition stage.
this means that there is a perceptual limitation that prevents people from
comprehending two messages spoken to them at once
Artificial Intelligence: a field that attempts to program computers to perform
intelligent tasks
psychologists thought of humans as bundles of S-R reflexes
Plan: a list of instructions that can control the order in which a sequence of operation
is to be performed
Cognitive Science: the study of intelligence in humans, computer programs, and
abstract theories, which emphasis on intelligent behaviour as computation.
Cognitive Neuroscience: examines where cognitive operations occur in the brain
parts of the cerebral cortex
occipital lobe - in charge of sight, the primary visual cortex is located here
parietal lobe - deals with sensation (touch)
temporal lobe - deals with hearing, essential for understanding language and
contributes to recognizing complex visual patterns
frontal lobe - responsible for all sensory systems and contributes to planning motor
advances in technology
fMRI - a diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields and computerizes images
to locate mental operations in the brain (uses blood flow to detect activity)
PET - a diagnostic technique that uses radioactive tracers to study brain activity by
measuring the amount of blood flow in different parts of the brain
ERPs - a diagnostic technique that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to
measure the duration of brain waves during mental tasks
damage to the temporal area in the left hemisphere can result to a language deficit
that leaves the person unable to combine words to produce meaningful ideas