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Chapter 11

Abnormal Psych Chapter 11 Personality Disorders.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 11: Personality Disorders Personality Trait vs. Personality Disorder -state= refers to the expression of a personality characteristic that is related to a specific circumstance, clinical condition, or period of time -trait= refers to the specific and characteristic way someone approaches the world (unlikely to change) -three Ps patterns of behaviour 1. Persistent- over time 2. Pervasive- across people and situations 3. Pathological-clearly abnormal -personality disorder= an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture, is pervasive and flexible, has the onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress and impairment -divided into 3 clusters Personality Disorder Clusters ClusterA: Odd or Eccentric Disorders -odd, quirky, or eccentric -similar to those seen in psychosis and schizophrenia Paranoid Personality Disorder -a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent -unjustified and pervasive distrust -suspiciousness does not extend to delusional thoughts • Believes others intent to harm or deceive • Is quick to rebut in an angry manner • Reads negative meaning into benign comments • Fears information will be used against him or her • Questions loyalty and trustworthiness • Suspects infidelity in a sexual or romantic partner Schizotypal Personality Disorder -this PD does not have delusions of grandeur as does schizophrenia • Unusual perceptual experiences and odd thinking, speech • Ideas of reference (incorrect interpretations that events around them have specific and unusual personal meaning) and magical thinking • Suspiciousness and paranoia • Inappropriate emotional expression • Limited number of friends and relatives • Odd, eccentric or peculiar behaviour Schizoid Personality Disorder • Lack of desire for relationships, few friends • Preference for isolation • General lack of emotionality • Being neutral regarding praise or criticisms • Lack of enjoyment in activities Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Disorders -behaviours are exaggerated, inflated, dramatic, emotional, or erratic Antisocial Personality Disorder (fact or fiction?) -pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others -more common in males -has been known as psychopathy, sociopathy, dissocial personality disorder • Failure to conform to social norms with respect to the law • Impulsivity or lack of planning skills, irritability • Engaging in problematic activity • Minimize the consequences of their actions and feel no remorse • Regular irresponsibility • Age at least 18 with evidence of conduct disorder before 15 -common behaviours in youth include cruelty to animals and people, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious violations of rules Borderline Personality Disorder (fact or fiction?) -instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity -form an attachment to someone and idealize them but a minor conflict can lead to a rapid swing to the other extreme -border between neurosis and psychosis -distinguish between bipolar because behaviour and emotions also fluctuate, not just mood • Chronic feelings of emptiness and emotional instability, fear of abandonment • Impulsivity in at least two destructive areas (ex spending, sex, substance abuse) • Recurrent suicidal behaviour, gestures, or threats -occur during dissociative episodes (temporary detachment from reality) • Apattern of strained interpersonal relationships • Inappropriate irritability or expression of anger • Significant consistent unstable self-perception • Deep fear of abandonment • Difficulty controlling anger Narcissistic Personality Disorder -grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy -seek constant attention • Agrandiose sense of self-importance, preoccupation with success • Arrogant, haughty behaviours or attitudes • Envy of others or the belief • Lacks empathy • Requires excessive admiration • Believes that he or she is special and unique • Has a sense entitlement (unreasonable expectations of favourable treatment) • Interpersonally exploitative (takes advantage of others) Histrionic Personality Disorder -excessive emotionality and attention seeking -histrionic means dramatic or theatrical -consider relationships to be closer or more intimate than they actually are • Showing inappropriate sexually seductive and extreme emotionality • Displaying superficial expression of emotions • Using physical appearance as a means of getting attention • Being uncomfortable when not the center of attention • Inappropriate irritability • Self-dramatization, impressionistic Ethics and Responsibility: BPD -they can be difficult, treatment resistant, manipulative, demanding, and attention seeking -negative perceptions of patients by therapist can lead to negative expectations and outcomes, and self-fulfilling prophecies which can lead to misdiagnosis -clinicians should only give diagnosis when symptoms are consistent with criteria Cluster C:Anxious or Fearful Disorders -considerable anxiety or withdrawal -Social anxiety, obsessionality, or fear of independence Avoidant Personality Disorder -social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation -shy and uncomfortable in social situations (blushing, crying) • Avoidance of social or occupational activities because fear of rejection • Feelings of social inferiority and inadequacy • Discomfort and reluctance in new social interactions due to fear of criticism • Unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked • Restraint within intimate relationships because fear of being shamed -social anxiety disorder vs. avoidant personality disorder -much overlap in diagnosis criteria, only one criterion “is reluctant to take personal risks or engage in new activities” differentiates
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