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Chapter 2

Chapter 2- Integrative approach to psychopathology

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 2An Integrative Approach to Psychopathologyissue of causationmultidimensional integrative approachsometimes a disorder can be caused by one linear relationship chemical imbalance but most of the time abnormalbehavior results from multiple influencessystemicimplies that any particular influence contributing to psychopathology cannot be considered out of contextcontextbiology and behavior as well as the cognitive emotional social and cultural environment What Caused Jodys Phobia blood injection Behavioral Influenceshis reaction UCR became associated with situations similar to the scenes in the moviebut why didnt the other kids develop the same phobia Biological Influencesvasovagal syncopecommon cause of faintingHR and BP increaseBody takes over by compensatinglowers everythingSyncope means swoon or sinking feelingif you put your head in your knees you can avoid thisTendency to overcompensate tends to be inherited families Emotional Influencesbehaviour thoughts and feelings can also influence biologysometimes dramaticallyemotions can affect physiological responses such as blood pressure HR and change the way you think about situationsplay a huge role in the development of disorders Social Influencessocial and cultural factors make direct contributions to biology and behaviorpeople rushed to his aid when he faintedrejectionparticularly from authority can make psychological disorders worse than they otherwise would be Developmental Influencesaffects us allthe passage of timereact differently at different agespreviously exposed to other situations involving blood maybe Outcome and Commentsapplied muscle tension is a technique the reduces vasovagal reactions by maintaining BPfinding the causes of abnormal behavior is a complex and fascinating process Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology Genes very long molecules of DNA at various locations on chromosomes within the cell nucleus thMendeldominant and recessive genesphysical characteristics are from genes 19 centuryour weight and height are affected by nutritional social and cultural factors thoughgenes seldom determine our physical development in any absolute wayexcept for identical twins everyone has a unique set of genes unlike those of anyone else in the world The Nature of Genes46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairsfemalesboth chromosomes on 23 pair are X for males there is an X and a Ygenes have a double helix structuredefective genemay or may not lead to problemsdominant geneone of a pair of genes that determines a particular traitrecessive genemust be paired with another recessive gene to determine a traitbehaviour personality IQ are polygenicinfluenced by many genesQuantative geneticssum up all of the tiny effects across many genes without necessarily telling us which genes are responsible for which effects New Developments in the Study of Genes and Behaviorbest estimates attribute about half our eduring personality traits and cognitive abilities to genesheritability of general cognitive ability IQintelligence is 62relatively stable through out adult life McClearnfor psychological disorders the evidence indicates that genetic factors contribute to all disorders but account for less than half the explanation exception of alcoholismif one of a pair of identical twins has schizo the other twin has a less than 50 likelihood of having it toomental retardationchildhood disorder involving significantly below average intellectual and adaptive functioninghave identifiable genetic disorders involving a single geneFragile Xmutation on the tip of the X sex chromosomeone genetic cause of mental retardation malesCurrent evidence suggests that contributions to psychological disorders come from many genesGenetic contributions cannot be studied in the absence of interactions with events in the environment that trigger genetic vulnerability or turn on specific genes
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