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Chapter 13

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

CHAPTER 13: CAREERS AND WORK  “Love and work… work and love, that’s – Sigmund Freud  Famous for: love & sex  Another element in understanding human condition: work  Work is defining characteristic in lives of many  “What do you do for a living?”  tell a lot about person  Social status, educational background, lifestyle, personality interests, aptitudes  Rate work as “important” or “very important”  unemployment is devastating  Industrial/organizational psychology: study of human behaviour in the workplace  Increase dignity & performance of workers  Better organizations where they labour  Others: worker motivation & satisfaction, job performance, occupational hazards, leadership, personnel selection, diversity  Main concern: how individuals balance work & family CHOOSING A CAREER  Typical weekday  Sleep 6 – 8 hours  Commute 1 – 2 hours  Work 8 hours  Prep/eat meals 2 hours  TV/Internet 1 – 3 hours  Others 1 – 2 hours  Try doing this for 5 days a week, 50 weeks a year, 40 – 45 years  find something that you enjoy doing..!  Education to break into field  Career  other aspects of life (i.e. employment, financial security, happiness, etc.)  choose the right career!  To make a successful career 1. Have clear grasp of personal characteristics 2. Need realistic information about potential careers 3. Select occupation that is good match for personal characteristics EXAMINING PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FAMILY INFLUENCES  Lower class  Limited job skills + qualifications  limited job options  take whatever is available  Middle + upper class  choose career  personality & family influences Personal Characteristics  Secure attachment + self-efficacy  easier to make career choices  Intelligence (academic success)  likelihood of entering fields  Holds well for men  Specific aptitudes: special talents  make person more suited for certain occupations  Social skills  team work (especially important for trend in integrating networks)  i.e. social-emotional & interpersonal intelligence  interests  motivation for work & job satisfaction  personality  compatibility with job Family Influences  jobs appeal to people tend to be like those of their parents  middle-class  high-paying professions (i.e. law, medicine, engineer)  low-income  blue-collar jobs (i.e. construction, office work, food services)  family background  career choice 1. number of years of education: parents & kids often attain similar levels of education 2. socioeconomic status: educational aspiration & attainment 3. ethnicity (i.e. Chinese & Asian American students choose investigative occupations  more influenced by parents)  parenting practices:  middle-class: encouraged to be curious & independent  essential to high-status occupations  lower-status: conform & obey RESEARCHING JOB CHARACTERISTICS Sources of Career Information  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Published by US Bureau of Labor Statistics  Job descriptions, education & training requirements, salaries, employment outlooks Essential Information about Occupations  Nature of work: what do you do day-to-day?  Working conditions: pleasant or unpleasant? Low-key of high pressure?  Job entry requirements: training & education?  Ongoing training or education: need more education once you get in the field?  Potential earnings: starting? Minimum? Cap? … Fringe benefits?  Potential status: social status associated with occupation? Does it satisfy you?  Opportunities for advancement: how do you move up in this field? Are there a lot of opportunities?  Intrinsic job satisfaction: what do you get personally out of the job? What does it allow you to do?  Future outlook: projected supply & demand for occupational area?  Security: will job sustain itself if economy takes a dive?  Having degree will get you a higher paying job  BUT, grades you earn during degree are more important in determining whether or not you get position  High GPA  ability to be training  job performance  salary level  promotion  Future belongs to those who are better educated USING PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS FOR CAREER DECISIONS  Occupational interest inventories: measure interests as they relate to various jobs/careers 1. Strong Interest Inventory (SII) 2. Self-Directed Search:  SII  likelihood of job satisfaction; show how your interest scores are similar to those of other occupations  Interest inventories  food for thought; careers you might never have thought of (seek vocational counselor?) Caution 1. Don’t dismiss test results just because you’re sure that few specific scores are “wrong” and that you won’t like the job for sure. 2. Don’t let test make career decisions for you. Let it be a guideline. 3. Beware of gender bias in occupational interest inventories – these things were created 30-40 years ago when there was much bias towards women. TAKING IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS INTO ACCOUNT  You have the potential for success in a variety of occupations  Be cautious about choosing a career solely on the basis of salary  Meaning & purpose, NOT MONEY, lead to happiness & well-being.  Too often  chase money  doesn’t fit personality  mismatch  unhappy  affect other parts of life.  There are limits on your career options.  You choose the job, BUT you have to get employer to choose you.  Limitations: economy + job market.  Career choice is developmental process that extends throughout life.  Average 10 jobs throughout life.  Choice is not limited to youth.  Some career decisions are not easily undone.  Law  med school? It happens.  Have to take into consideration children, elder care, family, etc. MODELS OF CAREER CHOICE AND DEVELOPMENT HOLLAND’S PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT MODEL  Personality characteristics (i.e. values, interests, needs, skills, learning styles, attitudes)  career choice  People classified into 6 personality types (a.k.a. personality orientations)  Occupations classified into 6 ideal work environments  People flourish when personality type is matched with work environment congruent with abilities, interests, self-beliefs  Exercise abilities & skills  Share attitudes & values with others  Adopt agreeable problems and roles  Assume age 21: stability in interests & personality arrives  Tests to measure RIASEC theory  Self-directed search (SDS): individuals identify personality  match with relevant occupations  Can be combo of several personalities  Research done on Holland’s model  much supportive (more research done on this model than any other in vocation psychology) Themes Personal Orientations Work Environments Realistic  Values concrete and physical tasks  Settings: concrete, physical tasks requiring  Perceives self as having mechanical skills &mechanical skills, persistence, and physical social skills movement  Careers: machine operator, pilot, draftsperson, engineer Investigative Wants to solve intellectual, scientific,andSettings: research laboratory, diagnostic medical mathematical problems case conference, work group of scientists  Sees self as analytical, critical, curios, Careers: marine biologist, computer programmer, introspective, and methodical clinical psychologist, architect, dentist Artistic  Prefers unsystematic tasks or artistic pojeSettings: theater, concert hall, library, radio or TV painting, writing, drama) studio  Perceives self as imaginative, expressiv, aCareers: sculptor, actor, designer, musician, author, independent editor Social  Prefers educational, helping, and religius Settings: school and college classrooms,  Enjoys social involvement, church, music, repsychiatrists, office, religious meetings, mental and dramatics institutions, creational centres  Cooperative, friendly, helping, insightfl, Counselor, nurse, teacher, social worker, judge, persuasive, and responsible minister, sociologiset Enterprising  Values political and economic achievemens, Settings: courtroom, political rally, car sales room, supervision, and leadership real estate firm, advertising company  Enjoys leadership control, verbal expresionCareers: realtor, politician, attorney, salesperson, recognition, and power manager  Perceives self as extraverted, sociable, happy, assertive, popular, and self-confident Conventional  Prefers orderly, systematic, concrete taks Settings: banks, post office, file room, business verbal & mathematical data office, Internal Revenue Office  Sees self as conformist and having clerial Careers: banker, accountant, timekeeper, financial numerical skills counselor, typist, receptionist SUPER’S DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL  Donald Super: occupational development is process that begins at childhood  unfold gradually across most of lifespan  retirement  Self-concept  decisions about work & career decisions = people’s attempts to express changing views of self  5 stage model. Growth Stage (period of general physical & mental growth)  Children fantasize about exotic jobs  Largely oblivious to realistic considerations (i.e. abilities, education, etc.)  Aspirations & expectations vary widely b/c of home & educational environments  Prevocational substage (0-3): no interest or concern with vocations  Fantasy substage (4-10): fantasy is basis for vocational thinking  Interest substage (11-12): vocational thought based on individual’s likes and dislikes  Capacity substage (13-14): ability becomes the basis for vocational thought Exploration Stage (general exploration of work)  During high school: pressures from parents, teachers, peers to develop general career direction  End of high school: narrowed general career direction into specific one  reading or part-time work  Seek full-time work  Gratifying experience? Tentative commitment strengthened.  Unrewarding experience? Shift to another occupation.  Not enough career preparation in high school.  Tentative substage (15-17): needs, interests, capacities, values, and opportunities become bases for tentative occupational decisions  Transition substage (18-21): reality increasingly becomes basis for vocational thought and action  Trial substage (22-24): first trial job is entered after individual has made an initial vocational commitment Establishment Stage (individual seeks to enter a permanent occupation)  Commitment uncertainty continues to be common  When people make gratifying choices  career commitment strengthened  Job moves within preferred occupational area  must use acquired skills, learn new skills, display flexibility in adapting to organizational changes  Trial substage (25-30): period of some occupational change due to unsatisfactory choices  Stabilization substage (31-44): period of stable work in given occupational field Maintenance Stage (continuation in one’s chosen occupation)  Opportunities for further advancement & occupational mobility decline  Formal & informal learning necessary to keep up with current & future of job  Focus on retaining achieved status  want to keep security, power, advantages, perks > fight with youth  Shift focus from work to family/leisure  No substage; (45-65) Decline Stage (adaptation to leaving workforce)  Deceleration: decline in work activity in years prior to retirement  Normally starts around age 65  Baby boomers: early retirement  of oversupply of skilled labour & professional talent  Economic crisis: people who lost jobs & finances  need more time to save up  Retirement: work activity stops  Feelings: angst (about money, what to do with time, etc.)  looking forward to it  Spend time on hobbies, spend time with family & friends, volunteer, etc.  Deceleration substage (65-70): period of declining vocational activity  Retirement substage (71+): cessation of vocational activity WOMEN’S CAREER DEVELOPMENT  59% of women work  90% chance women work outside home during adult life  In last 50 years, women’s employment  +ve effects on economy + social & economic lives of families  Women labour force = men labour force (almost)  Women still subordinate career goals to men  Wife follow husband to new location for job  take best job out there  High divorce rate  provide for children  living standard drop 27%  Career path discontinuous for women  Interrupt careers to concentrate on childrearing / family crises  Women decreasing time away from work now (even after giving birth)  BUT lower levels of status & wage naturally  Women  no children?  remain in labour force  similar career pattern o men  Lowest workforce participation rate  spouse with really high income OR really low income THE CHANGING WORLD OF WORK WORKPLACE TRENDS  Work: activity that produces something of value for others o way to earn living o or way of life  nature of work undergoing dramatic change  affect our future job prospects 1. The highest job growth will occur in the professional and service occupations  Shift from manufacturing economy  service-producing  Professional: computer industry and health care industry expected to grow Psychology: health, clinical, counseling, and school psychology expected to grow  Service: education, health services, social services, professional services, business services Computer software Personal and home care Self-enrichment Athletic trainers Home health aids engineers, applications aides education teachers Biochemists & biophysicists Dental assistants Medical assistants Physical therapist aidesSkin care specialists Biomedical Engineers Dental hygienists Medical scientists, Physical therapist Veterinarians (except epidemiologists) assistants Compliance officers, Network systems and Veterinary except agriculture, Financial examiners data communication Physician assistants technologists and construction, health & study, transportation analysts technicians 2. technology is changing the nature of work  computer automate jobs  eliminate jobs  demand employees to have more skills + education  stressful for workers to upgrade new technology (hard to teach old dog new tricks?)  telecommuting: allows employees to work at home & communicate with distant offices + while travelling 47% of organizations use Lower levels of work-family life conflict Higher job satisfaction  Computer-driven machines require workers to design, manufacture, sell, service 3. Lifelong learning is a necessity  Jobs changing very rapidly  work skills obsolete over 10-15 year period  Today, 1/3 of Americans will take courses to improve their skills  Retraining might be requirement for some jobs  Community colleges, technical institutions, distance learning (beware fakes) 4. New work attitudes are required  Today’s workers… add value to company?  job security  Workers must play active role in shaping their careers  Must develop variety of valuable skills, be productive workers, skillfully market themselves to prospective employers  Keys to job success: self-direction, self-management, up-to-date knowledge and skills, flexibility, and mobility  self- assessment  improve & expand skills 5. Independent workers are increasing  Bad economy  company downsize & restructure  slash permanent jobs  outsourcing Reduce payroll costs, health insurance, pension plans, union benefits Lean workforce  quickly respond to fast-changing markets (can a fat boy run to catch the bus?)  Solution?  free agent (LEGO career): assemble and reassemble building blocks of work life (values interests, aptitudes and skills) in various combinations  match career opportunities that emerge over time A.k.a. contract work  freedom, flexibility, high incomes  BUT, if you lack entrepreneurial spirit… might be stressful and risky  1/3 of independent employees would like to work for someone else, not themselves 6. Job sharing is becoming more common  Share one job between 2 people  One person works x hours, other person works x ours  meet up for x hours/week to update  Provides flexibility to people who have other priorities/interests at hand 7. Boundaries between work and home are breaking down  Technology  people work at home (i.e. convenient, no commuting, save money)  BUT, with all this technology  boss can get a hold of you whenever she wants  electronic leash  Home function  company; in office day cares!!  Dual-earner households: both partners are employed EDUCATION AND EARNINGS  More you learn, more you earn (except air traffic controller)  Having college degree  more career options + greater opportunities for advancement  Males make $12-35K more, even with same educational credentials  Underemployment: settling for job that does not fully utilize one’s skills, abilities, and training  College diploma  What matters? College grads with reading, writing, quantitative skills  higher paying jobs  Don’t have it?  high-school level jobs  Current employers not happy with academic skills of employees  1/3 don’t meet writing requirements for their positions  Must be able to write clearly & concisely  New jobs  need more education & higher skill levels  international competition + technology  Technology not so much a problem… everyone grows up with technology these days THE CHANGING WORKFORCE  Labour force: all those who are employed + those currently unemployed but looking for work Demographic Changes  Workforce beco
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