Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
PSYCH (5,000)
Chapter 9

Psychology 2035A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Attachment In Adults, Shyness, Underweight


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2035A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Chapter
9

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Chapter 9: Friendship and Love (Lecture Notes)
The Ingredients of close relationships
Close relationships “are those that are important, interdependent, and long lasting."
They come in many forms, including:
o Family relationships
o Friendships
o Work relationships
o Romantic relationships
o Marriage
Close relationships arouse intense feelings that are both
Positive (passion, concern, caring) and
Negative (rage, jealousy, despair)
This is referred to as the paradox of close relationships.
Initial Encounters:
Some Main Factors that draw people together:
Proximity (spatial closeness)
Friendships and love interests influenced by seating charts, apartment availability, etc.
Familiarity
Mere Exposure Effect: More frequent exposure to a stimulus = more positive feelings.
Importance of Physical Attractiveness
Problems with self-reports
What makes someone attractive?
Women = ‘baby faced’
Men = strong jaw and/or fine-featured
Thinness: Women believe that men desire thinner women than is actually the case.
Men emphasize their resources, women emphasize their looks.
What do men and women want?
For both men & women the top 3:
Mutual attraction, dependability, emotional stability
For men
Physical attractiveness; health are rated important
For women
Earning potential, status, ambitiousness are rated important
Matching Hypothesis: People of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other.
However, men can sometimes ‘trade’ attractiveness for resources.
Evolutionary Explanations
Sociocultural Explanations
La Cerra: Attractiveness and Parental Investment
Investigated whether women have evolved a preference for men who show parental investment.
1. Standing alone
2. Smiling and playing with a child
3. With a child but not interacting.
4. Ignoring a crying child
5. Doing housework (vacuuming)
Findings:
Attractiveness as a potential mate.
Rated men interacting with the child the highest.
Rated men ignoring the child the lowest.
Potential support for the theory
Who was rated least attractive?
Man vacuuming
Man just standing
Man with child, neutral emotions
La Verra- Parental Investment and Male Preference
Same study but with male participants.
What was found?
It didn’t matter.
Men attractiveness ratings were the same across all conditions.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

The Ideal mate- Worldwide
Women
Older (about 3 1/2 years older)
Symmetrical face (indicative of health)
High parental investment
Men
Youth & health (reproductive potential)
Symmetrical face
Getting Acquainted
Reciprocal Liking
We tend to like others who like us.
Similarity
We tend to like others who are similar to us.
Desirable Personality Characteristics
More important than physical characteristics for future spouse.
Established Relationships
Relationship Maintenance: Actions and activities used to sustain the desired quality of a relationship.
Strategies (eg):
Positivity
Assurances of commitment
Joint activities
Interdependence Theory
Interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs exchanged in interactions.
Comparison Level (CL): A standard of what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs.
Comparison Level for Alternatives (CL-alt): One’s estimation of the available outcomes from alternative
relationships.
People gauge their satisfaction with relationships by comparing their relationship to their expectations.
CL: For example, Joe might expect high levels of personal sharing and outdoor activities in his rel’ps, and if this
isn’t met, he will be unsatisfied. This can be influenced by previous relationships, TV, etc.
CL-alt: So, it could be that you find a specific other partner, that the ‘market’ looks good, or that you could get
your needs met by family and friends independent of your partner.
So, if people feel that they are getting a lot out of their relationship with relatively few costs, they will probably
stay in the relationship.
Four Types of Relationships Based on Interdependence Theory
1. Satisfied, committed
a. Less likely to break up
b. From highest to lowest on goodness of otucomes: outcomes, CL-lat, CL
2. Satisfied but not stable
a. From highest to lowest (goodness of outcomes): CL-alt, Outcomes, CL
3. Stable but not satisfied
a. Nonvoluntary dependence: staying in unsatisfying relationship because of lack of alternatives
b. From highest to lowest goodness of outcomes: CL, outcomes, CL-alt
4. Unstable and unhappy
a. Most likely to break up
b. From highest to lowest goodness of outcomes: CL, CL-alt, outcomes
Friendship
What Makes a Good Friend?
Provide emotional and social support
Gender Differences
Women = Emotionally Based
Men = Activity Based
Women’s friendships closer and more satisfying because of self-disclosure.
Men (especially in the U.S.) socialized “strong & silent” etc.
Romantic Love
Who are more romantic, men or women?
Who falls in love more easily?
Gender Differences
Men: Hold more romantic beliefs, fall in love more easily.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Women: More likely to say they would marry someone they don’t love.
Theories of Love
- Attachment theory
o Adult romantic love has similarities to bond between infant and caregiver.
o The way that you approach and perceive adult relationships depends on treatment as a child.
o Attachment styles: Typical ways of interacting in close relationships.
Parent’s Caregiving Infant Adult
Warm/Responsive Secure Secure
Cold/Rejecting Avoidant Avoidant
Ambivalent/ Anxious/ Anxious/
Inconsistent Ambivalent Ambivalent
Secure:
Sexual confidence, open sexual communication, fidelity.
Avoidant:
Casual sex, having sex to impress peers, masturbation.
Anxious:
Fears that discussions about sex will alienate partners, having sex to reduce insecurity.
Married Couples: Individuals with avoidant spouses report lower levels of sexual satisfaction.
Why Relationships End
50% of serious dating couples break up
Four Factors:
Premature Commitment
Ineffective Communication/Conflict Management Skills
Becoming Bored with Relationship
Availability of more Attractive Relationship
Making Relationships Last
Take time to get to know each other before making commitment. (Ask the big questions: Goals? Responsibilities?
Money?)
Emphasize positive qualities of partner and relationship.
Bring novelty to the relationship.
Develop conflict management skills.
Chapter 9: Friendship and Love (Textbook Notes and Extra Slides)
Perspectives on Close Relationships
The Ingredients of close relationships
Close relationships “are those that are important, interdependent, and long lasting."
They come in many forms, including:
o Family relationships
o Friendships
o Work relationships
o Romantic relationships
o Marriage
Close relationships arouse intense feelings that are both
Positive (passion, concern, caring) and
Negative (rage, jealousy, despair)
This is referred to as the paradox of close relationships.
Relationship Development
Initial encounters
- People become aware of their mutual attraction, usually triggered by their looks and early conversations. Drawn together by three
factors:
Three factors underlie initial attraction between strangers:
1. Proximity we are more likely to become involved with people we are geographically, or spatially, close to.
Refers to geographic, residential and other forms of spatial closeness
2. Familiarity the mere exposure effect states that positive feelings toward a person are increased the more often
we see them.
3. Physical attractiveness
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version