Chapter 13 Careers and Work
Describe personal and family influences on job choice
- Intelligence does not necessarily predict occupational success, but it predict the
likely hood of entering particular occupations
- Specific aptitudes that might make a person well suited for certain occupations
include creativity, artistic or musical talent, mechanical ability, clerical skills, and
mathematical skills. A particularly crucial characteristic is social skills, since the
use of teams to accomplish work tasks is increasingly important in a wide variety
- People travel through life, they require a variety of interests. Because interests
underlie your motivation for work and your job satisfaction you should definitely
be considered in your career planning.
- It is important to choose an occupation that is compatible with your personality
- Educational level, because parents and children often attain similar levels of
education, they are likely to have similar jobs. - Socioeconomic status, mediate this relationship is educational aspirations and
attainment during the school years. Parents and teachers and boost student career
aspirations 抱负 and opportunities y encouraging them to do well in school.
- Ethnic differences, Asian American college students are more influenced by
parents than European American college students
- Most middle class families teach children to be independent and curious qualities
that are essential to success in many high status occupations, children from lower
status are often taught to be conform and obey.
Cite several helpful sources of career information
Occupational Outlook Handbook: government document, published every two years by
the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics, is a comprehensive guide to occupations. It include
description of nature of each job and its working conditions, educational requirement,
future employment, and earnings prospects.
APA （American Psychological Association）The APA website provides links to other
sites describing more than 50 subfields in psychology, many of which provide useful
Lists some aspect of potential occupations that are important to know about
- The nature of the work (every day responsibilities for the job duties)
- Job entry requirement (education and training is required for the job) - Ongoing training and education
- Working conditions (work environment pleasant or unpleasant)
- Potential earnings what are entry level salaries, and how much can you hope to
earn if you are exceptionally successful
- Potential status: what is the social status associated with this job and is this
satisfactory for you?
- Opportunities for advancement: how do you move up in this field.
- Intrinsic job satisfaction: can you drive a way of personal satisfaction in this job
other than money and formal fringe benefit
- Future outlook: what is the projected demand and supply for this occupational
- Security: Is the work apt to be stable or can the job disappear if there is an
Clarify the role of occupational interest inventories in career decisions
Occupational Interest Inventories measure your interest as they relate to various jobs or
careers. There are Strong Interest Inventory (SII) and Self-directed Search (SDS)
- Occupational interest inventories focus more on the likelihood of the job
satisfaction than on job success.
- When you take an occupational interest inventory, you receive many scores
indicating how similar your interests are to the typical interest of people in
various occupations. - Interest inventories result can confirm your subjective guesses about your
interests and strengthen already existing occupational preferences.
You should also note several cautions are worth nothing
- Score high on some occupations that you are surely hate. Don’t dismiss the
remainder of the test results just because your are sure that a few specific scores
- Don’t let test scores to make career decisions for you
- Most occupational interest inventories have gender bias, and research shows
ethinic bias on interest tests is less of a concern than gender bias.
Outline five important considerations in choosing an occupation
1. You have the potential to be successful in many areas, huge job opportunities , its
foolish to believe that only one career will be right for you, you will be searching
2. Don’t just choose a career base on salary
3. There are limits on your career options: 2 way street you choose career, boss has
to choose you as well. There may be economic downturn which can also be
beyond your control
4. Career choice is a development process that extends throughout life. 5. Some career decisions are not easily undone. Once you invest money time and
effort along a particular career path, it may not be easy to change path. Family
responsibilities can be major career changes difficult.
MODELS OF CAREER CHOICE AND DEVELOPMENT
Summarize Holland’s model of career choice
Holland’s Person- Environmental Fit Model: People can divide into six personality
types or personal orientations (RIASEC Theory) that prefer different work
- He believes career choice is related to an individual’s personality characteristics,
which are assumed to be stable over time, and a good match between one’s
personality and a work environment typically results in career satisfaction,
achievement , and stability.
Realistic: concrete, physical task requiring mechanical skills, persistence, and
physical movement (machine operator, pilot, draft person, engineer)
Investigative: research laboratory, work group of scientists ( Marine biologist,
computer programmer, clinical psychologist, architect, dentist)
Artistic: painting, writing, drama, imaginative, expressive, and independent. Social
Refer to pg412
Summarize Supper’s five stage model of career development
Super’s Developmental Model
- He views occupational development as a process that begins in childhood, unfolds
gradually across lifespan, and ends with retirement.
- Self-concept is the critical factor in this process, decisions about wok and career
commitments reflect people’s attempt to express their changing view of
- Career maturity is correlated with self-esteem and self-efficacy. This theory
assumes that people will remain in the same careers all their working lives.
inGrowth stage a period of general physical and mental growth: prevocational
stage(no interest or concern about vocation), Fantasy sub stage (fantasy is the basis of
vocational thinking, fantasize about exotic jobs they would enjoy.) Interest substage
(vocational thought is based on individual’s likes and dislikes) capacity substage
(ability becomes the basis for vocational thought) Exploration Stage general exploration of work: tentative substage (needs, interest,
capacities, values and opportunities become bases for tentative occupational decisions)
Transition substage (reality increasingly become basis for vocational thought and
action) Trial substage (first trial job entered and individual made an initial vocational
Establishment stage individual seeks to enter a permanent occupation: trial
substge: period of some occupational change due to unsatisfactory choices,
stabilization substage (period of stable work in a given occupational field.
Maintenance stage continuation in one’s chosen occupation
Decline stage adaption to leaving workforce (declaration substage period of
declining vocational activity, retirement substage )
Identify some differences between women’s and men’s career development
- Although women’s labor force participation rate is approaching that of men’s
important gender difference remain when it comes to career choice and
- Men’s career path usually continuous, where women’s tends to be discontinuous.
- Women whose spouse work in the top or bottom 20% earning has the lowest labor
force participation rate. THE CHANGING WORKLD OF WORK
Identify seven work related trends
Work is an activity that produces something of value for others
1. Technology is changing the nature of work
Allow workers to telecommuting (working at home while being electronically connected
to the office) increasing use of technology can also eliminate jobs.
2. New york attitudes are required
Worker has job security as long as they can provide value to the company. Must develop
a variety of skills, to productive workers, and skillfully market themselves to prospective
3. Lifelong learning is necessity
Work skills will be obsolete over a 10 to 15 year period.
4. Independent workers are increasing
Companies are outsourcing inor