Chp. 2 Key Terms
Archetypes: emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal
Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology
should study observable behaviour.
Classical Conditioning: type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the cpacity
to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Collective Unconscious: storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s
ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race.
Compensation: defense mechanism characterized by efforts to overcome imagined or
real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities.
Conditioned Response: learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that ovvurs because
of previous conditioning.
Conditioned Stimulus: previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning
acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Conscious: whatever one is aware of at one particular time.
Defense Mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from
unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute
target (usually anger).
Ego: decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality
Evolutionary Psychology: examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive
value for members of a species over the course of many generations.
Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response.
Fixation: failure to move forward from one stage of psychosexual development to
Heritability Ratio: an estimate of the proportion of the trait to be passed down to other
Hierarchy of Needs: systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which
basic needs must be met before advancing to other needs. (Pyramid)
Hindsight Basis: common tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how
events actually turned out.
Humanism: emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and
their potential personal growth.
Id: primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure
Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some
person or group.
Incongruence: disparity between one’s self-concept and one’s actual experience.
Need for Self-actualization: need to fulfill one’s potential, the highest priority in
Negative Reinforcement: strengthening of a response because it is followed by the
removal of an unpleasant stimul