Psychology 2035A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Psychosexual Development, Reality Principle, Operant Conditioning

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Archetypes: emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behaviour. Classical conditioning: type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the cpacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Collective unconscious: storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people"s ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race. Compensation: defense mechanism characterized by efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one"s abilities. Conditioned response: learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that ovvurs because of previous conditioning. Conditioned stimulus: previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. Conscious: whatever one is aware of at one particular time. Defense mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target (usually anger).

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