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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Key Terms

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chp. 2 Key Terms Archetypes: emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behaviour. Classical Conditioning: type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the cpacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Collective Unconscious: storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race. Compensation: defense mechanism characterized by efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities. Conditioned Response: learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that ovvurs because of previous conditioning. Conditioned Stimulus: previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. Conscious: whatever one is aware of at one particular time. Defense Mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target (usually anger). Ego: decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle. Evolutionary Psychology: examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response. Fixation: failure to move forward from one stage of psychosexual development to another. Heritability Ratio: an estimate of the proportion of the trait to be passed down to other generations. Hierarchy of Needs: systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before advancing to other needs. (Pyramid) Hindsight Basis: common tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out. Humanism: emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential personal growth. Id: primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. Incongruence: disparity between one’s self-concept and one’s actual experience. Need for Self-actualization: need to fulfill one’s potential, the highest priority in Maslow’s hierarchy. Negative Reinforcement: strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimul
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