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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Text Notes

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 4 Coping ProcessesThe Concept of Copingy Coping refers to efforts to master reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress y Sort coping tactics into 14 categories y Ppl select coping tactics fro a large and varied menu of options y Most adaptive to use a variety of coping strategies y Flexibility in coping is more desirable than consistently relying on the same strategy o Increased resilience and decreased distress y Flexible copers can differentiate among stressful events in terms of controllability and impact y Ability to select a particular coping strategy to deal with a specific adversity helps ppl avoid becoming stuck ina rut with a problematic strategyy Coping strategies vary in their adaptive value y Not all strategies are created equal o Range from helpful to counterproductive y No coping strategy can guarantee a successful outcome y Fig 41 Coping strategies Common Coping Patterns of Limited Value y Giving up o This response of apathy and inaction tends to be associated with the emotional reactions of sadness and dejection o Learned helplessness is a passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive eventsAnimals subjected to electric shocks they could not escapeWere then given an opportunity to learn a response that would allow them to escape the shockMany of them became apathetic and listless they didnt even try to learn the escape responseSimilar results in humans o Learned helplessness is associated w disengagement in academics and an increase in depression o Env Stressors such as excessive noise crowsding and traffic often produce a syndrome that resembles learned helplessness o Ppls cognitive interpretation of aversive events determines whether they develop learned hopelessness 1 Helplessness seems to occur when when ppl believe that events are beyond their controlPessimistic explanatory style o Behavioural disengagementAssociated with increased rather htan decreased stressAssociated w increased anxiety shortly after the attack o Withdrawing effort from unattainable goals like a new job you cant handle can be an effective coping strategy associated w a reduction in anxiety and depression y Acting Aggressively o Raod rage o Drivers copoing with stress anxiety and hostility experienced while driving o Aggression is any behavior intended to hurt someone either physically or verbally o Frustration aggression hypothesisFrustration does FREQUENTLY elicit aggression o Ppl will lash out aggressively at others who had nothing to do with the frustration esp if they cant do this to the person who initiated the frustration ie a police officer o DisplacementDiverting anger to a substitute target o CatharsisRelease of emotional tension o Healthy to blow off steamRelease and reduce anger o Behaving in an aggressive manner tends to fuel more anger and aggression o Relationship btw media violence and aggressive behavior o Engaging in virtual violencecould impact neural systems in a manner comparable with engaging in actual violence o Usually elicits aggressive responses from others that generate more anger y Indulging yourself o Stress can lead to self indulgence o Like eating something sweet o Others go shopping o Developing alternative rewards a common response to stressWhen things are poor in one area of your life you may try to compensate by pursuing substitute forms of satisfaction o Internet addiction 2
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