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Chapter 2

Psychology 2036A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Cerebral Palsy, Adrenal Medulla, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Course Code
Doug Hazlewood

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Chapter 2: The systems of the body
LO1: The nervous system:
Interconnected nerve fibres regulate response and recovery from stress
CNS (central nervous system) – brain, spinal cord
PNS (peripheral nervous system) – rest of the nerves in the body
PNS is made up of SNS (somatic) and the ANS (automatic)
SNS connects nerve fibres to voluntary muscles, provides brain with
sensory feedback from voluntary movement
ANS connects CNS with all internal organs that we don’t have control over
ANS is regulated via the sympathetic nervous system (SYN) and the
parasympathetic nervous system (PSYN)
SYN controls react to stress, prepares the body for emergencies – flight or
fight i.e. increased HR and tensing of muscles
SYN is a catabolic system because it is concerned with the mobilization
and exertion of energy
PSYN controls organs under normal circumstances – homeostasis
oActs antagonistically to the SYN – when emergency passes, PSYN
kicks in
PSYN is an anabolic system because it deals with the conservation of
body energy
The Brain:
Receives afferent (sensory) impulses from the PNS and sends efferent
(motor) impulses to the extremities and internal organs to carry out
necessary movement
3 sections: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
oHindbrain: medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum
Medulla is just above where spinal cord enters the skull and
is responsible for HR, BP, and respirations.
Pons serves as a link b/w hindbrain and midbrain and also
controls respirations
Cerebellum coordinates voluntary movement, balance,
muscle tone, posture. Damage to the cerebellum causes
tremors, uncoordinated movement, and disturbances in gait
oMidbrain is major pathway for sensory and motor impulses moving
b/w forebrain and hindbrain. Responsible for auditory and visual
oForebrain: dienchephalon, telencephalon
Diencephalon: hypothalamus, thalamus
Thalamus is involved in recognition of sensory stimuli
and the relay of sensory impulses to the cerebral
Hypothalamus helps regulate centers in the medulla
(for HR, BP, resps), regulates many bodily functions
(sex drive, water balance, appetite) via hormones and
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pituitary gland. Important transition center b/w
thoughts generated in cerebral cortex and their impact
on organs (i.e. embarrassment)
Telecephalon consists of two hemispheres (L and R) and the
cerebral cortex
Cerebral cortex interprets sensory impulses that come form
the peripheral areas of the body and sends motor impulses
down to lower portions of the brain and out to the body
Four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
Each lobe has its own memory storage and specific
The limbic system borders the midline of the brain and plays and
important role in stress and emotional responses
oAmygdala and hippocampus are involved in detection of threat and
charged memories
oCingulate gyrus, the septum, hypothalamus, anterior portion of the
thalamus are also related to emotional function
The role of neurotransmitters:
Chemicals that regulate nervous system
Stimulation of SYN prompts secretion of two neurotransmitters:
epinephrine and norepinephrine – these are called catecholamines and
are carried through the bloodstream
Release of catecholamines increases HR, RR, and BP by constricting/
dilating heart vessels
Repeated arousal of SYN may have implications on development of
chronic disorders
Disorders of the Nervous System:
1/3 Canadians will be affected by a nervous system disorder
Most common are epilepsy and cerebral palsy
Epilepsy: marked by seizures (can be barely noticeable or violent
oOften idiopathic (cause unknown)
oCannot be cured, but can be controlled through meds
Cerebral palsy: chronic, non-progressive disorder marked by lack of
muscle control
oCaused by brain damage due to lack of O2 supply (usually during
child birth)
oIn addition to lack of muscle supply, patients may also have
seizures, mental handicap, difficulties with sensory and perception
(hearing, sight, speech)
Alzheimer’s: progressive degenerative impairment to thinking and
oDue to aging population, alzheimer’s is on the rise
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Parkinson’s: progressive degeneration of basal ganglia (controls smooth
muscle coordination)
oTremors, rigidity, slow movement
oMen more likely than women
oDepletion of dopamine
MS: disintegration of myelin (what covers and protects your never fibres)
oCan cause paralysis, blindness, deafness, mental retardation
oAutoimmune disorder
Huntington’s: hereditary, chronic physical and mental retardation
oInvoluntary muscle spasms, loss of motor abilities, personality
oSymptoms similar to epilepsy so sometimes mistaken
Paraplegia: injury to lower spinal cord causing paralysis of lower
Quadriplegia: upper spinal cord is severed resulting in paralysis of all four
oComplete: spinal cord severed
oIncomplete: spinal cord hasn’t lost all fnx and sensation
LO2: The Endocrine System:
Complements nervous system
Made up of a number of glands, which secrete hormones into the blood,
stimulating changes in target organs
Nervous system is responsible for fast-acting and short-duration,
Endocrine system governs slow-acting and longer lasting
Regulated by hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
oPituitary are 2 glands: anterior and posterior
Anterior secretes hormones that control growth
Somatotropic hormone – regulates bone, muscle,
organ dev.
Gonadotropic hormones – gonads
Thyrotropic hormone – thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone – cortex region of the
adrenal glands
Posterior produces oxytocin (controls contractions during
labour and lactation for breastfeeding) and ADH (controls
water-reabsorbing ability of the kidneys)
Adrenals Glands:
One on top of each kidney
Adrenal medulla – epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenal cortex – stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (from anterior
pituitary) and releases steroids
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