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Chapter 5-7

Psychology 2036A/B Chapter 5-7: Psychology 2036A/B Chapter 5-7:


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2036A/B
Professor
Yves Bureau
Chapter
5-7

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Psych 2036A 2nd Midterm
Chapter 5 Health and Physical Activity
The Nature of Physical Activity:
- Psychologists are involved in the promotion of PA and exercise for disease prevention and rehabilitation
- Research and intervention skills can also be applied to sport/athletic performance
- Sport and exercise psychology overlap
Sport Psychology Influence of psychological factors on sport behaviour “mind to body
- Sport psychology interventions are effective in enhancing exercise activities
Exercise Psychology Influence of sport and exercise on psychological behaviour body to mind
Exercise A leisure activity undertaken with a specific external objective, with intention
Physical Activity The expenditure of energy, either purposely or without intention, as a result of bodily movements
produced by skeletal muscle as part of leisure or work activities
Physical Fitness Physiology functioning and attributes we have to influence it
- Cardiorespiratory endurance
- Muscular endurance & strength
- Body composition
- Flexibility
Sport Definitions are usually too inclusive; should include power, competition, skills, etc.
- Involves rules or limits, a sense of history, an aspect of winning and losing, and an emphasis on physical
exertion in the context of competition
Health-Illness Continuum (4 Points): Death Illness Health Perfect Health
5 Components of Health: Wellness is a balance between ALL 5 components
1. Mental
2. Physical
3. Emotional
4. Social
5. Spiritual
Levels of Physical Activity:
- Active Leisure: A positive experience associated with activities such as hobbies, playing an instrument, or
exercise (tend to be happier, motivated, and concentrated)
- Passive Leisure: A positive experience associated with lack of activity (listening to music, day dreaming)
Physical Activity Active leisure (vs. passive leisure) is linked to positive outcomes & general wellness, 30
minutes+/day is recommended, 150 minutes of moderate-vigorous activity/week (moderate activity has significant health
benefits and vigorous activity should also be included)
Canadian Exercise Rates in number of Canadians aged 12 or older who are moderately active, 52% of the population
is moderately active
- Many people don’t get enough exercise or adhere to it
- 15% of Canadians meet the exercise guidelines
- Men are more likely to be active then women
- Levels of activity with age
- People with a higher SES are more likely to be active than with a lower SES
- People who are active are more likely to rate their overall health higher (report lower stress, BP, and obesity)
- Over age 15 there is a decrease in sport involvement (45%→28%)
- Less children are involved in sports now than they used to be
o Cost, lack of convenience, child’s preference, lack of opportunities, homework, and traffic all influence
children/s participation in sport
- Try to establish healthy exercise behaviours early on

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5 Forms of Physical Activity:
`3 Types Based on Resistance: Involves placing demands on muscles to affect strength and endurance
1. Isometric = Contract muscle without moving body
2. Isotonic = Weight training
3. Isokinetic = Tension on muscle with range of motion
2 Types Based on O2 Use:
1. Anaerobic = Intense effort, short range
2. Aerobic = Lengthy effort, jogging
Psychological Benefits of Physical Activity: Extensive literature shows physical & psychological benefits
- Highlights mind-body integration
- Some concerns re: methodology - Initial health status of the experimental group will affect the impact of exercise
- Ostrow (1996) developed special psychological tests for particular sports
- Physical activity linked to sense of self, cognitive functioning, and mood
Physical Activity and Sense of Self:
- Correlation between PA & mental health
- Exercise is positively associated with:
o Improved mood, self-concept, and work behaviour
o Higher self-esteem
o Greater perceived self-efficacy
- Self-efficacy = Global beliefs about one’s ability to perform in a specific situation
o Predicts athlete performance
4 Sources of Efficacy Expectations:
- Performance accomplishments
o Actual experiences of mastery, most influential
- Vicarious experience
o Gained through observing/imagining others perform a skill to alert one to one’s own capabilities
- Verbal persuasion
o Verbally persuade others they have the skills to perform the task
- Emotional arousal
o Individuals assess their emotional level and evaluate their capabilities accordingly
Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning:
- Inconsistent findings b/t exercise & improved cognitive function (largely d/t poor methodologies)
- Results from meta-analysis suggest long-term engagement in exercise improves fitness & cognitive ability
o A chronic exercise program may be a useful intervention for enhancing cognition
- Short-term exercise initially attentional processes but will be overcome by the effects of muscular fatigue
- Studies show in elder adults, aerobic exercise can improve cognitive functions
o High fitness levels = better cognitive aging
Physical Activity and Mood:
- Exercise has been found to reduce state anxiety in some people
o Provides a distraction from daily stressors
o Affective response is mediated by preferred exercise mode
Greater improvements in positive affect following high preference exercise
Exercise enjoyment is important in benefiting from exercise, needs to be included
o Arousal during exercise, but anxiety after exercise
o Exercise alone is a good tx for anxiety
- PA can lessen non-clinical depression and may buffer the effects of stress
o Both aerobic and anaerobic PA can decrease depression
o Lower depressive sx in athletic students than sedentary students
o Lower psychosocial stress response with high levels of PA

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Physical Benefits of Physical Activity:
- Muscle strength & endurance & flexibility
- Cardiorespiratory fitness
- Improved weight control & fat metabolism & sleep & energy
- Prevention of bone density loss
- Reduction in poor health habits
- ↓ Risk of injury
- Improved cardiovascular functioning
o ↓ Mortality & longevity
o Lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CHD)
- Other disease prevention & health promotion
Adherence to Physical Activity:
- Non-Adherence = An inability to stay with an exercise program (50% drop out within first 6 months)
- Reasons for difficulty with adherence:
o Exercise is initially aversive & offers few immediate rewards
o Competitive nature of sports may threaten self-esteem (ex. social comparison)
- Positive benefits associated with exercise and sport come with time
o Ultimately outweigh initial costs
- Adherence to a program…
o Requires specific, relevant, salient reasons (NOT vague or ambiguous reasons)
o Depends on physical proximity to exercise area, free time, spousal support, group size, SES, activity
choice, and injury
o Adherence ↑ when the exercise is enjoyable and enhances self-worth
Psychological Factors Affecting Performance in Exercise and Sport:
Areas of Concern in Sport Psychology:
1. Psychological Skills
- Arousal or attentional control implemented to enhance performance
- Life skills = Transferable behaviours and attitudes from sport/athletic environment to life/adult pursuits
2. Clinical Issues
- Issues that may compromise an athlete’s performance (ex. injury, eating disorder, depression)
Psychological Methods = Relaxation, goal setting, imagery etc. that develop skills
1. Relaxation Skills (reduce anxiety to manageable levels to positively influence performance)
- Ability to relax under pressure → better performance of sport (performance is often better in a relaxed state)
- Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR) can help with somatic/physiological sx of anxiety
- Breathing control is most helpful in inducing and maintaining states of relaxation
2. Self-Talk (helps to correct bad habits, focus attention, modify activation, S-E, and maintain behaviours)
- Positive, instructional, and motivational self-talk can help athletes and can predict performance success
- Changing patterns of negative self-talk is important (cognitive restructuring)
- Can serve many fns in sport: self-confidence and/or S-E, and correct errors & bad habits
- Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy
o Modifying irrational thoughts by identifying patterns of faulty reasoning
o Irrational thoughts are interrupted and individuals learn to substitute more rational thinking patterns
3. Imagery (sensory experience of performing the sport without external stimuli)
- Internal: Active experience, in own body
- External: Third-person observer of self
- Can help performance but still understanding how to best use it
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