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Chapter 4

Chapter Fourteen.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2040A/B
Professor
Jackie Sullivan

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Chapter Fourteen: Family Origins & Functions of the Family - The family unit of our evolutionary ancestors enhanced survival by ensuring a relatively even balance of male hunters & female gatherers within a social group - Larger kin networks increased the chances of successful competition with other humans for resources & provided assistance with child rearing - Though contemporary families share some functions with other institutions, they retain primary responsibility for: o *Reproduction – replacing dying members o Economic services – producing & distributing goods & services o Social Order – devising procedures for reducing conflict & maintaining order o *Socialization – training the young to become competent, participating members of society o *Emotional support – helping others with emotional crises & fostering each person a sense of commitment & purpose - Researchers interested in finding out how families fulfill these functions take a social systems perspective, viewing the family as a complex set of interacting relationships influenced by the larger social context The Family as a Social System - Family members mutually influence one another, both directly & indirectly Direct Influences - Parents who are firm but warm tend to have children who comply with their requests o When children cooperate, parents are likely to be warm & gentle in the future - Parents who discipline with harshness & impatience tend to have children who resist & rebel o Since children’s misbehavior is stressful for parents, they may increase their use of punishment, leading to more unruliness by the child - Thus, behaviour of one family member helps sustain a form of interaction in another that either promotes or undermines children’s well-being Indirect Influences - Bronfenbrenner discussed indirect influences in chapter 1 as third parties - A child’s birth can have a third party impact on parent’s interaction that may affect the child’s development & well- being - When parents’ marital relationships is warm & considerate, mothers & fathers are more likely to engage in effective coparenting, mutually supporting each other’s parenting behaviours o These parents have more secure attachments with their babies, they praise & stimulate their children more & nag/scold them less – this in turns fosters a positive marital relationship - Parental conflict consistently undermined good parenting by increasing criticism & belittling of adolescents & decreasing monitoring of their whereabouts & activities – these practices heightened youth behaviour problems - Even when parental arguments strain children’s adjustment, other family members may help restore effective interaction Adapting to Change - As children acquire new skills, parents adjust the way they treat their more competent youngsters The Family System in Context - Connections to the community, through both formal organizations (schools, workplace) & informal social networks (friends, neighbours), provide social support that promotes effective family interaction & children’s development - This is evident as low SES families who move to better areas have better mental/physical health & school achievement - Links between family & community reduce stress & promote childhood development through: o Parental self-worth o Parental access to valuable information & services o Child-rearing controls & role models o Direct assistance with child rearing - The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project of Ontario, Canada, is a government sponsored set of programs aimed at preventing the dire consequences of neighbourhood poverty o Lead to a reduction in emotional & behavioural problems Socialization Within the Family Styles of Child Rearing - Child-rearing styles are combinations of parenting behaviours that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate - Effective styles consisted of 3 things: o Acceptance of child & involvement o Behavioural control (promotes mature behaviour) o Autonomy granting (encourages self-reliance) Features of Child-Rearing Styles: Child-Rearing Style Acceptance & Involvement Control Autonomy Granting Authoritative Is warm, responsive, attentive, Engages in adaptive behavioural Permit the child to make patient & sensitive to child’s control: Makes reasonable decisions in accord with Involves high need demands for mature behaviour & readiness acceptance & consistently enforces & explains Encourages the child to involvement, Note: most successful approach them express thoughts, feelings & adaptive control desires techniques & When parent & child appropriate disagree, engages in joint autonomy granting decision making when possible Authoritarian Is cold & rejecting Engages in coercive behavioural Makes decisions for the child control: Makes excessive demands Rarely listens to the child’s Low acceptance & for mature behaviour, using force point of view involvement, high in & punishment coercive behavioural Often uses psychological control, control & low in manipulating & intruding on the autonomy granting child’s individuality & parental attachments Permissive Is warm but overindulgent or Is lax in behaviour control: Makes Permits the child to make inattentive few or no demands for mature many decisions before the Is warm & accepting behaviour child is ready but no involved, little behavioural control & instead of gradual autonomy granting, allow them to make decisions right away Uninvolved Is emotionally detached & Is lax in behavioural control: Is indifferent to the child’s withdrawn Makes few or no demands for decision making & point of Low acceptance & mature behaviour view involvement with little behavioural control & gender indifference to issues * At extremes contributes to of autonomy neglect What Makes the Authoritative Style Effective? - It is up for interpretation - Could be because children who are more cooperative allow their parents to be more authoritative o But then we know that parenting can fix maladaptive behaviour - One reason could be that authoritative parents exert strong behavioural control (being directive but not coercive) Relationship of Child-Rearing Styles to Development & Adjustment Outcomes: Child-Rearing Childhood Adolescence Style Authoritative Upbeat mood: high self-esteem, self-control, task High self-esteem, academic achievement & persistence, academic achievement & social & moral maturity cooperativeness Authoritarian Anxious, withdrawn & defiant, aggressive behaviour; Less well-adjusted than agemates reared with the unhappy mood; hostile when frustrated; academic authoritative style, but somewhat better academic achievement difficulties achievement & less antisocial behaviour than agemates reared with permissive or uninvolved styles Permissive Impulsive, disobedient & rebellious; overly Poor academic achievement, defiance & demanding & dependent on adults; poor task antisocial behaviour persistence & academic achievement Uninvolved Deficits in attachment, cognition, play & emotional Poor academic achievement, depression, anger & & social skill antisocial behaviour Adapting Child Rearing to Children’s Development Parenting in Middle Childhood: Coregulation - In middle childhood, effective parents engage in coregulation, exerting general oversight over children, who increasingly make their own decisions Parenting in Adolescence: Fostering Autonomy - During adolescence, mature autonomy is fostered by parenting that strikes a balance between connection & separation - Autonomy has 2 vital aspects: o Emotional component – relying more on oneself & less on parents for support o Behavioural component – making decisions independently by carefully weighing one’s own judgment & the suggestions of others to arrive at a well-reasoning course of action - Gradual autonomy allows children to deidealize their parents & think of them as just people, consequently, there is less parental authority - Those who have bad parenting styles from their cultures cause children to have more acculturative stress which is associated with decline in self-esteem, rise in anxiety, depressive symptoms & deviant behaviour (alcohol, delinquency) - Throughout adolescence, the quality of the parent-child relationship is the single most consistent predictor of mental health Socioeconomic & Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing - Although the authoritative style predicts favourable development in children varying widely in SES & culture, SES & ethnic difference in parenting exist Socioec
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